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There is discontent and turnover among faculty at US academic health centers because of the challenges in balancing clinical, research, teaching, and work–life responsibilities in the current healthcare environment. One potential strategy to improve faculty satisfaction and limit turnover is through faculty mentoring programs.
A Mentor Leadership Council was formed to design and implement an institution-wide faculty mentoring program across all colleges at an academic health center. The authors conducted an experimental study of the impact of the mentoring program using pre-intervention (2011) and 6-year (2017) post-intervention faculty surveys that measured the long-term effectiveness of the program.
The percent of faculty who responded to the surveys was 45.9% (656/1428) in 2011 and 40.2% (706/1756) in 2017. For faculty below the rank of full professor, percent of faculty with a mentor (45.3% vs. 67.1%, P < 0.001), familiarity with promotion criteria (81.7% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.001), and satisfaction with department’s support of career (75.6% vs. 84.7%, P = 0.002) improved. The percent of full professors serving as mentors also increased from 50.3% in 2011 to 68.0% in 2017 (P = 0.002). However, the percent of non-retiring faculty considering leaving the institution over the next 2 years increased from 18.8% in 2011 to 24.3% in 2017 (P = 0.02).
Implementation of an institution-wide faculty mentoring program significantly improved metrics of career development and faculty satisfaction but was not associated with a reduction in the percent of faculty considering leaving the institution. This suggests the need for additional efforts to identify and limit factors driving faculty turnover.
This study empirically examines preparedness with a kit, medication, and a disaster plan on disaster outcomes including perceived recovery, property damage, and use of medical or mental health services.
Using a cross-sectional, retrospective study design, 1114 households in New York City were interviewed 21-34 months following Super Storm Sandy. Bivariate associations were examined and logistic regression models fit to predict the odds of disaster outcomes given the level of preparedness.
Respondents with an evacuation plan were more likely to report not being recovered (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.8), property damage (OR =1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), and use of medical services (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Respondents reporting a supply of prescription medication were more likely to report using mental health (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.2-9.8) and medical services (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.8)
Having a kit, plan, and medication did not reduce risk of adverse outcomes in Superstorm Sandy in this sample. Disaster managers should consider the lack of evidence for preparedness when making public education and resource allocation decisions. Additional research is needed to identify preparedness measures that lead to better outcomes for more efficient and effective response and recovery.
The Foothills Erratics Train consists of large quartzite blocks of Rocky Mountains origin deposited on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in Alberta between ~53.5°N and 49°N. The blocks were deposited in their present locations when the western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) detached from the local ice masses of the Rocky Mountains, which initiated the opening of the southern end of the ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and the LIS. We use 10Be exposure dating to constrain the beginning of this decoupling. Based on a group of 12 samples well-clustered in time, we date the detachment of the western LIS margin from the Rocky Mountain front to ~14.9 ± 0.9 ka. This is ~1000 years later than previously assumed, but a lack of a latitudinal trend in the ages over a distance of ~500 km is consistent with the rapid opening of a long wedge of unglaciated terrain portrayed in existing ice-retreat reconstructions. A later separation of the western LIS margin from the mountain front implies higher ice margin–retreat rates in order to meet the Younger Dryas ice margin position near the boundary of the Canadian Shield ~2000 years later.
We previously demonstrated that electrode architectures comprising nanoscale birnessite-like MnOx affixed to three-dimensional carbon nanofoam (CNF) scaffolds offer performance advantages when used as cathodes in rechargeable zinc-ion cells. To discern chemical and physical changes at the MnOx@CNF electrode upon deep charge/discharge in aqueous Zn2+-containing electrolytes, we deploy electroanalytical methods and ex situ characterization by microscopy, elemental analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray pair distribution function analyses. Our findings verify that redox processes at the MnOx are accompanied by reversible precipitation/dissolution of crystalline zinc hydroxide sulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4)·xH2O), mediated by the more uniformly reactive electrode structure inherent to the CNF scaffold.
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified functional connectivity patterns associated with acute undernutrition in anorexia nervosa (AN), but few have investigated recovered patients. Thus, a trait connectivity profile characteristic of the disorder remains elusive. Using state-of-the-art graph–theoretic methods in acute AN, the authors previously found abnormal global brain network architecture, possibly driven by local network alterations. To disentangle trait from starvation effects, the present study examines network organization in recovered patients.
Graph–theoretic metrics were used to assess resting-state network properties in a large sample of female patients recovered from AN (recAN, n = 55) compared with pairwise age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 55).
Indicative of an altered global network structure, recAN showed increased assortativity and reduced global clustering as well as small-worldness compared with HC, while no group differences at an intermediate or local network level were evident. However, using support-vector classifier on local metrics, recAN and HC could be separated with an accuracy of 70.4%.
This pattern of results suggests that long-term recovered patients have an aberrant global brain network configuration, similar to acutely underweight patients. While the finding of increased assortativity may represent a trait marker of AN, the remaining findings could be seen as a scar following prolonged undernutrition.
Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.
We examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 590 European-descent individuals from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between schizophrenia PRS and four anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder), schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder, manic/hypomanic episode, alcohol dependence, major depression, and – using linear regression – total number of anxiety disorders. A novel population-level association with hypomania was tested in a UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).
Schizophrenia PRS was associated with total number of anxiety disorders and with generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We show a novel population-level association between schizophrenia PRS and manic/hypomanic episode.
The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.
The crystal structure of terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. Terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate crystallizes in space group P-1 (#2) with a = 10.01402(4), b = 10.89995(4), c = 11.85357(4) Å, α = 89.5030(3), β = 71.8503(3), γ = 66.5632(2)°, V = 1118.143(8) Å3, and Z = 2. The terazosin cation occurs in an extended conformation. The crystal structure is dominated by hydrogen bonds. The most notable are the O–H···Cl from the water molecules to the chloride anion and N–H···Cl from the protonated ring nitrogen to the chloride. The amino group donates protons to each of the two water molecules. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
Several descriptive studies on the intake of polyphenols, mostly flavonoids, have been published, especially in Europe and the USA, but insufficient data are still available in Latin-American countries, where different types of foods are consumed and different dietary habits are observed. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to estimate dietary intakes of polyphenols, including grand total, total per classes and subclasses and individual compounds, and to identify their main food sources in Mexican women. The Mexican Teachers’ Cohort includes 115 315 female teachers, 25 years and older, from twelve states of Mexico, including urban and rural areas. Dietary data were collected in the period 2008–2011 using a validated FFQ, and individual polyphenol intake was estimated using food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Median total polyphenol intake was the highest in Baja California (750 mg/d) and the lowest in Yucatan (536 mg/d). The main polyphenols consumed were phenolic acids (56·3–68·5 % total polyphenols), followed by flavonoids (28·8–40·9 %). Intake of other polyphenol subclasses (stilbenes, lignans and others) was insignificant. Coffee and fruits were the most important food sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Intake of a total of 287 different individual polyphenols could be estimated, of which forty-two were consumed in an amount ≥1 mg/d. The most largely consumed polyphenols were several caffeoylquinic acids (ranging from 20 and 460 mg/d), ferulic acid, hesperidin and proanthocyanidins. This study shows a large heterogeneity in intakes of individual polyphenols among Mexican women, but a moderate heterogeneity across Mexican states. Main food sources were also similar in the different states.
Why do similar scientific enterprises garner unequal public approbation? High energy physics attracted considerable attention in the late-twentieth-century United States, whereas condensed matter physics – which occupied the greater proportion of US physicists – remained little known to the public, despite its relevance to ubiquitous consumer technologies. This paper supplements existing accounts of this much remarked-upon prestige asymmetry by showing that popular emphasis on the mundane technological offshoots of condensed matter physics and its focus on human-scale phenomena have rendered it more recondite than its better-known sibling field. News reports about high energy physics emphasize intellectual achievement; reporting on condensed matter physics focuses on technology. And whereas frontier-oriented rhetoric of high energy physics communicates ideals of human potential, discoveries that smack of the mundane highlight human limitations and fail to resonate with the widespread aspirational vision of science – a consequence I call “the purloined letter effect.”
The expression can continue for ever, in which case it is called an infinite continued fraction, or it can stop after some term, when we call it a finite continued fraction. For irrational numbers, a continued fraction expansion often reveals beautiful number patterns which remain obscured in their decimal expansion. The interested reader is referred to  for a collection of many interesting continued fractions for famous mathematical constants.
The conservation and management of peatlands by practitioners is often assumed to work best when guided by science (e.g. Maltby 1997). However, there are also many excellent peatland management and restoration projects, which have built upon years of practical experience (sometimes through trial and error), undertaken by organisations involved in hands-on peatland conservation. Parry, Holden and Chapman (2014) provide many examples of techniques developed through common sense and ingenuity on the part of practitioners, often with little input from the science community. Often restoration projects have to make progress well before the science is fully understood. Significant investment is being poured into peatland management projects across the world (Parish et al. 2008), and it is important for those investing resources in peatland environments that there is some evaluation of the impacts of such investment. Evaluating the success of peatland management projects may involve the scientific community (e.g. taking measurements of carbon fluxes). In many instances, however, practitioners may involve less stringent measures with success measured by recording some simple visible changes to the landscape. The evaluation of success may indeed be an economic one (Kent 2000) based on cost–benefit analyses (Christie et al. 2011) of, for example, money spent on restoration that has been or will be saved elsewhere through, for instance, improved water quality entering water company treatment works. The observations for measuring peatland conservation success may depend on spatial and temporal scale, geographic settings and project targets, as well as available expertise and funding. There are therefore questions about how we measure success and how scientists, practitioners and policy makers can work closely together to deliver the best outcomes for peatland ecosystem services. Careful attention should be given to the mechanisms for science knowledge exchange between science and practical application so that practical experience and knowledge by those managing peatlands is transferred into the scientific understanding of peatlands. Scientists value the opinions and ideas of the restoration community and there have been recent attempts to move towards improved co-design of research and co-production of knowledge of science and practitioner communities in peatland restoration environments (Reed 2008; Reed et al. 2009).
Taking an ecosystem services approach to peatland conservation means that scientists, practitioners and policy makers have to understand the wider interconnectedness of peatland processes that lead to the provision of goods and services to society.
Several airborne radar-sounding surveys are used to trace internal reflections around the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C and Vostok ice core sites. Thirteen reflections, spanning the last two glacial cycles, are traced within 200 km of Dome C, a promising region for million-year-old ice, using the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics High-Capacity Radar Sounder. This provides a dated stratigraphy to 2318 m depth at Dome C. Reflection age uncertainties are calculated from the radar range precision and signal-to-noise ratio of the internal reflections. The radar stratigraphy matches well with the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) radar stratigraphy obtained independently. We show that radar sounding enables the extension of ice core ages through the ice sheet with an additional radar-related age uncertainty of ~1/3–1/2 that of the ice cores. Reflections are extended along the Byrd-Totten Glacier divide, using University of Texas/Technical University of Denmark and MCoRDS surveys. However, core-to-core connection is impeded by pervasive aeolian terranes, and Lake Vostok's influence on reflection geometry. Poor radar connection of the two ice cores is attributed to these effects and suboptimal survey design in affected areas. We demonstrate that, while ice sheet internal radar reflections are generally isochronal and can be mapped over large distances, careful survey planning is necessary to extend ice core chronologies to distant regions of the East Antarctic ice sheet.
New water purification technologies led to large mortality declines by helping eliminate typhoid fever and other waterborne diseases. We examine how this affected human capital formation using early-life typhoid fatality rates to proxy for water quality. We merge city-level data to individuals linked between the 1900 and 1940 Censuses. Eliminating early-life exposure to typhoid fever increased later-life earnings by one percent and educational attainment by one month. Instrumenting for typhoid fever using typhoid rates from cities that lie upstream produces results nine times larger. The increase in earnings from eliminating typhoid fever more than offset the cost of elimination.
Management of individuals with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy may involve exercise restriction and/or β-blocker therapy.
This study assessed the practices of a group of paediatric electrophysiologists regarding the management of genotype-positive/phenotype-positive and genotype-positive/phenotype-negative individuals with these conditions.
An online survey was circulated to members of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society in May, 2014. The survey included questions addressing the respondents’ approach regarding exercise recommendations and prescription of β-blocker therapy.
A total of 45 cardiologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents restricted symptomatic patients from competitive sports; however, only approximately half restricted phenotype-negative mutation carriers from this level of activity. Recommendations were less consistent regarding other types of activities. A trend was identified regarding physician physical activity and exercise recommendations for phenotype-negative mutation carriers. Less-active physicians were more likely to restrict exercise. β-blocker therapy was discussed by the majority of respondents for symptomatic patients and a significant number of asymptomatic patients.
Exercise restriction for patients with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy varies based on several factors including phenotype, type of exercise, guidelines referred to, and physicians’ own level of activity.