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The strong self-damped Lyman α absorption systems present in the spectra of high redshift QSOs represent a unique population of absorber which has recently been associated with the precursors of current disk galaxies. In a low resolution survey for what we have come to call “Lyman α disk systems” performed at Lick Observatory (Wolfe, et al. 1986, Ap. J. Suppl. 61, 249) approximately 18 systems with confirmed damped Lyman α profiles and rest frame equivalent widths greater than 5 Å were detected in a sample of 68 high redshift QSOs (Smith, Cohen and Bradley 1986, Ap. J. 310, 583). Subsequent higher resolution study has shown these systems to have the following properties (Turnshek, et al. 1988, Ap. J., in press):
2.Low-mixed ionization state. Typically the low ionization states dominate the high ionization states (e.g. CII ≫ CIV). Some enrichment has occurred, −2≲[X/H]⊙ ≲0.
3.Gas density, n ≲ 1 cm−3.
4.The gas shows two components, a quiescent (disk) component, σν ≲ 10 km s−1, and a turbulent (halo) component, σν ≲ 20 km s−1. Some systems show only the low velocity dispersion component.
5.At least one system intervening toward a radio QSO (Pks 0458-020) shows 21-cm absorption. The system shows multiple cloud structure with σν ≈ 6 km s−1, Ts ≈ 100 K, and structure extended over several kpc on the sky.
6.There is evidence that these systems may be self gravitating with scale height of the order of 300 pc.
7.These systems represent a unique population of absorber (distinct from the ‘Lyman a forest’ and heavy element systems) covering approximately 20% of the sky to z ≈ 3 and accounting for all of the baryonic matter at that redshift.
Data have been accumulating since the beginning of this century that indicate that most, if not all, large asteroids have periodic lightcurves. The variations that are seen have periods of the order of several hours and can be understood as being caused by bodily rotation, accompanied by changes in shape and/or surface properties. Because corresponding color changes are usually absent, the former explanation of a variation in cross section is probably the correct one.
The life cycles of grains in circumplanetary space are governed by various physical processes that alter sizes and modify orbits. Lifetimes are quite short, perhaps 102-104 years for typical circumplanetary grains of 1 micron radius. Thus particles must be continually supplied to the circumplanetary complex, probably by the grinding down of larger parent bodies in collisions. Dust is eroded gradually through sublimation and through sputtering by the magnetospheric plasma but also is catastrophically destroyed through hypervelocity impacts with interplanetary micrometeoroids. Orbits evolve through momentum transfer (light drag, plasma or Coulomb drag, and atmospheric drag), and through resonant gravitational and electromagnetic forces. Plasma drag is generally the most effective evolution mechanism, with the possible exceptions of exospheric drag at Uranus and of electromagnetic schemes for some conditions. Since grains become charged (with typical electric potentials of a few volts), they undergo associated orbital perturbations: variable electromagnetic forces can cause the systematic drain of energy (orbital collapse) or, at specific (resonant) orbital locations can force large orbital inclinations/eccentricities. Solar radiation induces a periodic orbital eccentricity that can reach substantial values for 1 micron particles distant from the giant planets.
The radiation pressure (RP) felt by a perfectly absorbing particle is due to the momentum withdrawn each second from the beam. The Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag is produced since the particle continually absorbs mass in the form of radiation, which, upon re-emission, has the same mean momentum density as the particle itself. We find that, relative to the force felt by a perfectly absorbing particle, the RP+PR forces felt by a scattering particle must be multiplied by Qpr, the radiation pressure coefficient, which can be evaluated from Mie theory.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Features consistent with the syndrome known as excited delirium (ExDS) have been associated with law enforcement restraint-related death. The pathophysiology and exact causative factors of restraint-related death associated with ExDS remain unclear. We present a case of successful field resuscitation of a man with ExDS who experienced cardiopulmonary arrest while being restrained by law enforcement officers. Despite the presence of a severe lactic acidosis on emergency department admission, the patient recovered following prehospital treatment with advanced cardiac life support measures and intravenous sodium bicarbonate, likely in part due to early recognition of the disease process.
Few studies have prospectively investigated psychological morbidity in UK head and neck cancer patients. This study aimed to explore changes in psychological symptoms over time, and associations with patients' tumour and treatment characteristics, including toxicity.
Two hundred and twenty patients were recruited to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Late Effects on Normal Tissue (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic) (‘LENT-SOMA’) questionnaires, both pre- and post-treatment.
Anxiety was highest pre-treatment (38 per cent) and depressive symptoms peaked at the end of treatment (44 per cent). Anxiety significantly decreased and depression significantly increased, comparing pre- versus post-treatment responses (p < 0.001). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were significantly correlated with toxicity, age and chemotherapy (p < 0.01 for all).
This is the first study to analyse the relationship between Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores and toxicity scores in head and neck cancer patients. It lends support for the use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Late Effects on Normal Tissue (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic) questionnaire in routine clinical practice; furthermore, continued surveillance is required at multiple measurement points.
Plutonium oxide heat sources are used to power space missions. The heat produced by alpha decay of the 238 isotope of Pu is converted to electricity in a thermopile, providing electricity during a substantial fraction of the 88 year half-life of the isotope. Decay of the Pu produces helium and uranium, and a fraction of the evolved helium is captured in the oxide matrix. All of the helium produced in decay can in principle be contained in the oxide lattice, where it occupies the tetrahedral sites. Some helium diffuses out at a rate that is somewhat dependent on the form and morphology of the fuel. Rates have previously been measured for oxide aged about 1 year. Current measurements on sealed heat sources as old as 34 years indicate that the rate of diffusion has changed only slightly over time. Possible mechanisms for helium release include bubble diffusion, point defect migration, agglomeration and movement of He at grain boundaries, and volume diffusion through the lattice sites. We observe primarily diffusion from site to site within the lattice, with an activation energy of 18.7 kcal/mole, independent of point defect movement, despite the rising concentration of helium in the lattice over time and the accumulation of radiation damage within the lattice. Because of the slow diffusion of helium from the fuel to the headspace, heat sources are anticipated to be stable over a long lifetime.
At the time this report was written, Commission 7 according to the IAU database had 304 registered members. The activities of Commission 7 in the past triennium closely followed the plan outlined at the business meeting of the Commission held on August 5, 2009 in Rio de Janeiro (Transactions IAU, Volume XXVIIB, 119-120).
Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of M(allyl)3 (M = Rh, Ir; allyl = η3 -C3H5) in the presence of H• yields thin, crystalline metal films of greater than 97% metal composition. Depositions using H2 result in the formation of materials which are amorphous and contain a significant amount of residual carbon (14%). The composition of these materials does not differ significantly from that obtained from the vacuum thermal deposition of M(allyl)3.
There were four 1.5-hour sessions of Division I business meetings during the XXVIIth IAU General Assembly. The first three were devoted to the reports of Commissions, Working Groups and services associated with the Division, discussion about plans for the next triennium and future structure of the Division. Scientific presentations on the future space astrometric mission Gaia were made at the fourth session.
The interplay of the disc and the dark halo resonances governs the secular evolution of disc galaxies, and the properties of their bar component (Athanassoula 2002). Martinez-Valpuesta et al. (2006), Ceverino & Klypin (2007) and Athanassoula (2007b) confirm and extend this work. Ceverino & Klypin (2007) calculate the orbital frequencies of each particle over the whole temporal evolution, and thus find much broader frequency peaks. In all cases, it is the same resonances that come into play, and, as in Athanassoula 2002, the angular momentum is emitted by near-resonant material in the bar region and absorbed by near-resonant material in the halo and the outer disc. The relative importance of each resonance, however, varies from one case to another. Furthermore, the second and third of the above mentioned studies examine the location of resonant orbits in configuration space and find compatible results.
Division I provides a focus for astronomers studying a wide range of problems related to fundamental physical phenomena such as time, the inertial reference frame, positions and proper motions of celestial objects and precise dynamical computation of the motions of bodies in stellar or planetary systems in the Universe.
Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration.