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Arthonia epipolytropa Hafellner & Grube and Arthonia subclemens Hafellner, Grube & Muggia are described as new to science. Both are specific parasites of Lecanora polytropa s. lat., but of differing pathogenicity and of very different appearance. Whereas the clearly parasitic Arthonia epipolytropa with its agglomerated ascomata is presently known with certainty from a number of localities along the arch of the Alps (Austria, Italy, Switzerland), other parts of Europe (Norway, Albania) and northern America (USA), the less harmful A. subclemens with its isolated sunken ascomata is currently known only from a small number of localities in the Eastern Alps (Austria, Italy) and various mountain ranges in southern Europe (Spain, North Macedonia, Greece). The species are compared with other Arthonia species known from Lecanora or one of its recently segregated genera. A key to the fungi regularly found on Lecanora polytropa s. lat. is presented.
The new species Miriquidica invadens Hafellner, Obermayer & Tretiach is described and reported from Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, Switzerland, France and Spain. From a morphological point of view the species belongs to the M. griseoatra group, in which it is, so far, the only constantly lichenicolous taxon. Chemically it is characterized by the regular presence of miriquidic acid, stictic acid, and constictic acid (in variable amounts). It starts its ontogenetic life cycle as an obligate youth parasite on Sporastatia, usually S. polyspora.
Morpho-anatomical treatments of other species of the Miriquidica griseoatra group occurring in Europe, based on the examination of type material, are also presented. According to the characters exhibited by the lectotype of Lecidea contigua var. griseoatra Flot., M. griseoatra (Flot.) Hertel & Rambold is the correct name for a montane species with subdivided areoles and immersed, laterally adnate apothecia with a pigmented hypothecium. Specimens exhibiting this set of characters were usually named M. obnubila auct. According to the characters observed on the lectotype of Lecidea (Biatora) obnubila Th. Fr. & Hellb., M. obnubila (Th. Fr. & Hellb.) Hertel & Rambold is a species with sessile apothecia with a hyaline hypothecium. Lecidea subplumbea Anzi does not constitute a heterotypic synonym of Lecidea griseoatra (Flot.) Schaer. but is the legitimate name at the species level for Miriquidica griseoatra sensu auct., and therefore M. subplumbea (Anzi) Cl. Roux is the correct name for that taxon. Lecidea inserena Nyl. is confirmed as a heterotypic synonym of Lecidea subplumbea Anzi. Lecidea plumbea Garov. ex A. Massal. is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Miriquidica limitata Hertel & Rambold and, therefore, the new combination M. plumbea (Garov. ex A. Massal.) Hafellner, Obermayer & Tretiach is introduced.
Lectotypes are designated for Lecidea contigua var. griseoatra Flot., Lecidea inserena Nyl., Lecidea obnubila Th. Fr. & Hellb., Lecidea plumbea Garov. ex A. Massal., and Lecidea subplumbea Anzi. A key to the taxa of the M. griseoatra-group and other Miriquidica taxa with a grey thallus is provided.
Lecidea kelica Stirt., formerly accepted as a corticolous species of Catillaria is shown to belong to a new, monospecific genus here described as Stirtoniella in the family Ramalinaceae. Details of Stirtoniellia kelica, its synonymy, chemistry, ecology and distribution are presented. It is known from New Zealand and Tasmania.
Two new species of Mycobilimbia are described from Spain. Mycobilimbia olwacea has a minutely squamulose and olivaceous thalli and dark reddish brown apothecia, colourless inside; it has been found at middle to high altitudes (from 900 to 1750 m), growing on humid tree bases of Pinus nigra and lignum of Quercus pyrenaica. Mycobilimbia parvilobulosa is closely related to M. berengeriana, but differs markedly by its squamulose thalli, with crenate to subdigitiform margins, dark reddish brown excipulum and colourless epithecium. It grows on moss-covered old trunks of fagaceous trees. The new taxa are compared with M. berengeriana, M. hypnorum and M. sanguineoatra and their main distinguishing characters are tabulated.
A synopsis of the subgenus of lichenicolous fungi Lichenogramma is presented. It comprises eight species of Lichenostigma with oval to elongate ascomata connected to superficial strands of vegetative hyphae. Five of them are described here as new: Lichenostigma diploiciae (on Diploicia subcanescens); L. epipolina (on Diplotomma epipolium); L. gracilis (on Acarospora fuscata); L. rouxii (on Squamarina spp.); and L. subradians (on Acarospora spp., mainly subgen. Acarospora). The concept of the genus Lichenostigma is enlarged to accommodate also species with submuriform ascospores. A key to all the species of the subgenus is provided.
Four species of corticolous lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes are described from a tropical lowland rainforest in southern Venezuela: Mycomicrothelia xanthonica Komposch, Aptroot & Hafellner along with the closely related M. macrocarpa Komposch, Aptroot & Hafellner (Arthopyreniaceae), Pseudopyrenula cryptotheca Komposch, Aptroot & Hafellner (Trypetheliaceae), and Ancistrosporella psoromica Komposch, Aptroot & Hafellner (Opegraphaceae). Descriptions and illustrations are presented and the relationships of the taxa discussed. In addition, the following new combination is proposed: Ancistrosporella curvata (Aptroot) Komposch (Opegrapha curvata Aptroot). Ancistroporella G.Thor is regarded as typographical error and corrected to Ancistrosporella.
The new crustose lichen genus Tasmidella, containing the species, T. variabilis sp. nov with two varieties, var. variabilis and var. inactiva var. nov., is described. Tasmidella is most closely related to Megalaria, from which it differs chiefly by having simple ascospores with a layered wall. Relationships with superficially similar genera are discussed. A revised circumscription of the family Megalariaceae is provided to take into account the inclusion of a second genus.
The species of Arthonia s. lat. (Arthoniales, Ascomycotina) lichenicolous on species of Pseudocyphellaria and other Lobariaceae are revised. Thirteen species are accepted, and eight species are described as new (all from the Southern Hemisphere): Arthonia badia Wedin & Hafeliner, A. coriifoliae Wedin & Hafeilner, A. fiavicantis Wedin & Hafellner, A. maculiformis Wedin & Hafeliner, A. minuta Wedin & Hateliner, A. santessoniana Wedin & Hafellner, ‘A.’ semi-immersa Wedin & Hafeilner, and A. subaggregata Wedin & Hafellner. Comparative notes on additional accepted species previously described from Pseudocyphellaria or other Lobariaceae (A. pelvetii, A. plectocarpozdes, A. pseudocyphellariae, A. stzctaria, and A. subconveniens) are included, and a key to the Arthonia (and similar) species growing on Lobariaceae is presented. The coelomycete genus Subhysteropycnis Wedin & Hafellner is described for the species S. maculiformans Wedin & Hafellner, the macroconidal anamorph of Arthonia badia. The lecanoralean genus Corticiruptor Wedin & Hafeliner is described as new to accommodate the single lichenicolous species C. abeloneae (P. M. Jørg.) Wedin & Hafellner comb. nov., and the additional new combination Plectocarpon linitae (R. Sant.) Wedin & Hafellner is proposed. The names Celidium pelvetii Hepp, Sticta aurata b abortiva Schaer. and Arthonia stictarza Nyl. are lectotypified, and the typifications are discussed.
The status of four umbilicate lichens with lecanorine apothecia and hyaline, 1-celled ascospores is reviewed. It is concluded that Omphalodium should be emended to exclude O. arizonicum and consequently a new genus Omphalora T. Nash & Hafellner is proposed. Differences in anatomy, morphology, pseudocyphellae type, pigmentation and cell wall chemistry, and ascal dehiscence provide the primary justification for the new genus.
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