To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Litter breakdown is an important ecological process at the bottom of food webs in streams. Previous studies have been based only on a temporal interval of a single season, thus ignoring seasonal variation in litter input and community structure. We investigated organic matter input in a Brazilian savanna stream and the influence of its associated hyphomycetes on the invertebrate community. Organic matter input was sampled monthly and the leaves submitted to decomposition experiments. There were lower breakdown rates and higher invertebrate species richness and abundance during the dry season, which reached their maximum in July due to low stream discharge. Invertebrate composition was best explained by hyphomycetes (mainly by Flagellospora curvula and Anguillospora filiformis). Hyphomycetes have the capacity to degrade complex compounds of litter and to rapidly absorb nutrients by growing branched filaments, thus making the leaves more favourable for consumption by invertebrates. Shredder abundance was negatively related to litter richness, indicating possible species-specific relationships. We observed a sequential process with increased leaf litter input promoting an increase in hyphomycetes biomass, which in turn favoured invertebrate density.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
We report a summary of Portuguese families and siblings research under the umbrella of the Portuguese Healthy Family Project. Families lived in mainland Portugal, as well as in the Azores and Madeira islands. All samples comprise children and adolescents (9–20 years) and their parents (27–57 years). Recruitment procedures and phenotypes were detailed. Familial resemblance in body shape and composition, metabolic syndrome, physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behaviors are presented, as well as future research avenues.
This research presents the mineralogical and chemical characterization and beneficiation study of two kaolin deposits from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Brazil. Seven samples were collected and treated in two different beneficiation routes involving magnetic separation and chemical bleaching. The fractions obtained were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, particle-size analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance and determination of optical properties. The samples are composed mainly of subhedral kaolinite in the form of booklets, as well as muscovite, quartz, microcline and illite impurities. The kaolinite structural formulae indicated significant replacement of Si4+ by Al3+ in tetrahedral sites and low replacement of Fe3+ by Al3+ in the octahedral sites. The first 30 min of chemical bleaching improved significantly the optical properties of kaolin, indicating that the process is more efficient than magnetic separation.
This study aimed to determine the cutoff and the specificity and sensitivity of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) in a Portuguese sample of cancer patients.
A total of 147 patients (mean age = 49.2; SD = 12.6) completed the ET, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Subjective Experiences of Illness Suffering Inventory. Data were collected in a cancer support institution and in a major hospital in the North of Portugal.
The optimal cutoff for the Anxiety Thermometer was 5v6 (until 5 and 6 or more), which identified 74% of the BSI-anxiety cases and 70% of noncases. The Depression Thermometer cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 85% of BSI-depression cases and 82% of noncases. Cutoff for the Anger Thermometer was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 83% of BSI-hostility cases and 73% of noncases; for the Distress Thermometer, the optimal cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 84% of the suffering cases and 73% of noncases. Finally, for the Help Thermometer, it was 3v4 (until 3 and 4 or more), which helped to identify 93% of the suffering cases and 64% of noncases.
Significance of results
Results supported the Portuguese version of the ET as an important screening tool for identifying the emotional distress in cancer patients.
The aim of this study was to construct and validate an Attitude Scale relating to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) old age (EAFV-LGBT). The first study, consisting of 29 items in its preliminary version, counted on 266 individuals from the public in general with an average age of 28.6 years (DP = 9.70), exploratory factor analysis was undertaken and EAFV-LGBT consisted of twelve items, with eigenvalues of 5.08, accounting for 43.8% of total variance. The second study consisted of 261 individuals from the general public with an average age of 23.18 years (DP = 8.25), confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken and psychometric parameters by means of Item Response Theory and conformation of the EAFV-LGBT structure. After this analysis, two items were excluded due to lower psychometric values, in which the 10 item scale proved to be valid and precise in evaluating individuals with varying levels of the latent trait. An adequate fit of the model to the data was verified, CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.6; RMSEA, 90% CI = 0.05 [0.01, 0.07]. Lastly, the EAFV-LGBT has valid psychometric properties to evaluate attitudes towards LGBT old age.
Although there is a vast bibliography on the negative consequences of unemployment for mental health, there are no studies that analyze the differences between men and women in relation to the consequences that unemployment could have simultaneously on self-esteem and depression. The main objective of this study was to analyze whether, unemployment is differentially associated with the self-esteem of men and women, and to test whether this circumstance can be considered a psychological mechanism by which we could explain differences in depression for men and women. Results show that self-esteem is a mediating variable (indirect effect = .11; 90% CI [.04, .19]), considering its differential impact on depression, but this mediation is moderated by the gender of the respondents (b = .21, 90% IC [.01, .40]. In summary, unemployment is associated with lower self-esteem, which in turn is related to greater depressive symptoms. This relationship is only observed for men and not for women.
Leishmaniasis is considered a parasitic disease that still causes serious consequences for mankind, because it presents a high mortality rate worldwide. Considered multi-hosts, the parasites of the genus Leishmania are able of infecting a wide variety of animal species. The dog was considered the main source of infection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in the urban area. However, the role of other animal species in the epidemiological cycle of the disease, such as cattle, remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in 100 bovines (Bos taurus) from an area endemic for canine VL, using blood culture and molecular analysis. By the sequencing analysis, one sample showed 100% similarity with Leishmania infantum. The results provide the first case of L. infantum isolation in one bovine from the periurban areas of Bauru, state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Paramedics Providing Palliative Care at Home was launched in two provinces, including a new clinical practice guideline, database, and paramedic training. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient/family satisfaction and paramedic comfort and confidence.
In Part A, we gathered perspectives of patients/families via surveys mailed at enrolment and telephone interviews after an encounter. Responses were reported descriptively and by thematic analysis. In Part B, we surveyed paramedics online pre- and 18 months post-launch. Comfort and confidence were scored on a 4-point Likert scale, and attitudes on a 7-point Likert scale, reported as the median (interquartile range [IQR]); analysis with Wilcoxon ranked sum/thematic analysis of free text.
In Part A, 67/255 (30%) enrolment surveys were returned. Three themes emerged: fulfilling wishes, peace of mind, and feeling prepared for emergencies. In 18 post-encounter interviews, four themes emerged: 24/7 availability, paramedic professionalism and compassion, symptom relief, and a plea for program continuation. Thematic saturation was reached with little divergence. In Part B, 235/1255 (18.9%) pre- and 267 (21.3%) post-surveys were completed. Comfort with providing palliative care without transport improved post launch (p = < 0.001) as did confidence in palliative care without transport (p = < 0.001). Respondents strongly agreed that all paramedics should be able to provide basic palliative care.
After implementation of the multifaceted Paramedics Providing Palliative Care at Home Program, paramedics describe palliative care as important and rewarding. The program resulted in high patient/family satisfaction; simply registering provides peace of mind. After an encounter, families particularly noted the compassion and professionalism of the paramedics.
This study investigated the effects of a maternal dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet on lipid metabolism, microbial counts in faeces and hepatic and intestinal morphology in rat offspring with respect to sex during different phases of life. Wistar rats (dams) were fed a control (CTL) or DLP during gestation and lactation. After weaning, CTL and DLP offspring were fed a standard diet. The effects of a maternal DLP on body composition, biochemical parameters, faecal microbiota and intestinal and hepatic histomorphometric characteristics in rat offspring were evaluated at 30 and 90 d of age. The DLP diet during gestation and lactation caused lower birth weight and a greater weight gain percentage at the end of the 90-d period in both male and female offspring. Female pups from DLP dams had higher liver fat levels compared with CTL (P≤0·001) at 90 d of age. Males from DLP dams had greater visceral fat weight and lower Lactobacillus spp. faecal counts at 90 d of age (P≤0·001) as well as lower faecal fat excretion (P≤0·05) and Bacteroides spp. faecal counts (P≤0·001) at 30 d of age when compared with pups from CTL dams. However, both dams and DLP pups showed damage to intestinal villi. A maternal DLP alters intestinal function and lipid metabolism in a sex-specific manner and is a potential predisposing factor for health complications in offspring from the juvenile period to the adult period.
The insecticide chlorantraniliprole is recommended for integrated pest management programmes of caterpillar (Lepidoptera) pest species. This insecticide is considered harmless to parasitoids, but its selectivity may vary with the species of natural enemy, few of which were subjected to testing. Furthermore, in addition to the active ingredient, formulation adjuvants may improve insecticide efficiency, but also its impact on nontargeted organisms. Here the chlorantraniliprole effect and its interaction with adjuvant on the survival and qualitative parameters of progeny of the nontarget parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Delvare and LaSalle) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied. The treatments used were: chrolantraniliprole (T1), chlorantraniliprole+surfactant (T2), and deionised water (T3, control). Pupae of Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were subjected to these treatments for 24 hours and offered to the adult parasitoids. Chlorantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole+surfactant did not elicit direct toxicity to female parasitoids. However, chlorantraniliprole and its combination with surfactant reduced the head capsule width of the female progeny. This insecticide alone also reduced emergence and the progeny metatibia length. Chlorantraniliprole did not induce mortality of P. elaeisis adults, but its negative impact on the emergence and progeny size of this parasitoid suggests an important sublethal effect to be considered.
Phenological models for predicting the grapevine flowering were tested using phenological data of 15 grape varieties collected between 1990 and 2014 in Vinhos Verdes and Lisbon Portuguese wine regions. Three models were tested: Spring Warming (Growing Degree Days – GDD model), Spring Warming modified using a triangular function – GDD triangular and UniFORC model, which considers an exponential response curve to temperature. Model estimation was performed using data on two grape varieties (Loureiro and Fernão Pires), present in both regions. Three dates were tested for the beginning of heat unit accumulation (t0 date): budburst, 1 January and 1 September. The best overall date was budburst. Furthermore, for each model parameter, an intermediate range of values common for the studied regions was estimated and further optimized to obtain one model that could be used for a diverse range of grape varieties in both wine regions. External validation was performed using an independent data set from 13 grape varieties (seven red and six white), different from the two used in the estimation step. The results showed a high coefficient of determination (R2: 0.59–0.89), low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE: 3–7 days) and Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD: 2–6 days) between predicted and observed values. The UniFORC model overall performed slightly better than the two GDD models, presenting higher R2 (0.75) and lower RMSE (4.55) and MAD (3.60). The developed phenological models presented good accuracy when applied to several varieties in different regions and can be used as a predictor tool of flowering date in Portugal.
Statoliths are nonskeletal calcified structures included in most invertebrates’ gravireceptors. They have been identified and characterized in several gastropod and cephalopod molluscs and have proved to be very useful for age estimation, growth studies, and connectivity analysis, among other applications. Beyond the scarce available records on their occurrence in Class Bivalvia, statoliths are yet to be documented in the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus, a species of high ecological and commercial value. An easy method for the extraction and processing of R. decussatus statoliths is described herein. The statolith growth was followed from the initial shell length (SL) of 2.5–3.5 mm (seed commercial size T1.5) for a period of 6 months in a nursery facility located in the Ria de Aveiro (an estuarine system in NW Portugal). The relationship between statolith diameter (StD) and SL follows the function StD=14.305 SL0.254 (N=173; r=0.855, p<0.001). All statoliths observed showed similar morphostructure and general chemistry: hard, translucent spheres of crystalline calcium oxalate (whewellite), with a central nucleus delimited by a growth check of 6.7±1.0 µm in diameter, possibly as a result of growth arrest during metamorphosis, a metamorphic ring, as described for their gastropod counterparts. Subsequent studies should validate this and will involve a search for the occurrence of additional checks that may potentially be present in older specimens and if they are, would open a new range of most promising applications for bivalve statoliths.
The aim of this study was to optimize protocols for electroporation (EP) and polyfection (PLF) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) for pig sperm transfection and to determine which method was the most efficient. For EP standardization, different voltages, amounts and times of electric pulses were tested using propidium iodide (PI) as reporter. For PLF standardization, different concentrations of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled PEI (PEI/FITC) were incubated with sperm for different periods of time. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate the best protocol in terms of cell viability, including cytoplasmic membrane, acrosome, chromatin integrities and mitochondrial potential using the FITC probe, PI, acridine orange (AO) and JC1. Transfections with the plasmid pmhyGENIE-5 were carried out under optimum conditions for each procedure (EP: 500 volts, 500 μs and two pulses; PLF: PEI 0.5 mg/ml and incubation time 10 min). Transfection efficacy was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A lower transfection rate was observed for sperm in the control group (17.8%) compared with EP (36.7%), with PLF (76.8%) being the most efficient. These results suggest that the EP and PEI could be an efficient and low cost transfection method for swine sperm. Notably, treated cells showed higher plasmatic the membrane damage (PMD) and/or acrosome damage (AD) indexes, therefore the combination of this procedure with biotechniques that facilitate fecundation (i.e. in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) or even inclusion of antioxidant or anti-apoptotic drugs to improve spermatozoa viability would be important.
This study investigates how consistent genetic factors are, as measured by heritability estimates (h2), in the leisure-time physical activity index (LTPAI) and sport participation index (SPI) from early (10–14 yrs) to late adolescence (15–19 yrs). The sample comprises 12,385 subjects from 3,378 Portuguese nuclear families. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the LTPAI and SPI were estimated by questionnaire. Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed by parental occupation. Analyses were done using S.A.G.E. software. Our results showed that h2 estimates for the LTPAI and SPI in the two age groups (10–14 yrs and 15–19 yrs) were stable: for the LTPAI, h2 = 0.297 and 0.322, respectively; and for the SPI, h2 = 0.413 and 0.428, respectively. Sibling correlations and environmental correlations are higher in the younger age group for both the LTPAI and the SPI. Spousal correlations are higher in the younger age group for the LTPAI and lower for the SPI than the older group. Parent–offspring correlations are similar in both age groups for the LTPAI and SPI. In conclusion, the influence of genetic factors on physical activity and sport participation remains stable across age in adolescence. However, variation in sibling correlations — in particular, environmental correlations — was observed. These findings suggest that shared/non-shared environmental factors express different degrees of importance across age. Future intervention programs aiming to promote change in behaviors need to consider these results to bring about positive changes in physical activity and sport participation behaviors within the family setting.
The aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43.87 ± 7,46%, 57.57 ± 17.49%, and 53.63 ± 16.27%, respectively. For P. mangurus, hatching occurred after 28 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C and 17 h 30 min at 26°C with respective hatching rates of 45.4 ± 21.02% and 68.1 ± 12.67%. For this species, all embryos incubated at 30°C died before hatching. Additionally, for P. maculatus, the larvae from the lower (22°C) and higher temperatures (30°C) presented increased abnormality rates, as observed in the head, tail and yolk regions. The lowest abnormality rate was detected at 26°C, which was considered the optimal incubation temperature for both species. The developed protocol enables the manipulation of embryonic development, which is important for the application of reproductive biotechniques, including chimerism and chromosome-set manipulation. The data obtained here are also important for the surrogate propagation of this species as P. mangurus was recently categorized as an endangered fish species.
By using quasi-optical tools, it is possible to approximate microwave radiation to Gaussian beams, which enables the study of its propagation and coupling to different components. Hence, their usefulness for wireless power transfer and rapid system design. In this paper, a system composed of two reflectors is analyzed both theoretically and by discussing two cases where quasi-optical tools were applied. The near- and far-field regimes were considered and corresponding frequencies of operation, beam radius, and radius of curvature were computed.
Isotopic composition of leaf carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) is determined by biotic and abiotic factors. In order to determine the influence of leaf habit and site on leaf δ13C and δ15N in the understorey of two Atlantic forests in Brazil that differ in annual precipitation (1200 and 1900 mm), we measured these isotopes in the shaded understorey of 38 tropical tree species (20 in the 1200-mm site and 18 in the 1900-mm site). Mean site values for δ15N were significantly lower at the 1200-mm site (−1.4‰) compared with the 1900-mm site (+3.0‰), and δ13C was significantly greater in the 1200-mm site (−30.4‰) than in the 1900-mm site (−31.6‰). Leaf C concentration was greater and leaf N concentration was lower at 1200-mm than at 1900-mm. Leaf δ15N was negatively correlated with δ13C across the two sites. Leaf δ13C and δ15N of evergreen and deciduous species were not significantly different within a site. No significant phylogenetic signal for any traits among the study species was found. Overall, site differences were the main factor distinguishing traits among species, suggesting strong functional convergence to local climate and soils within each site for individuals in the shaded understorey.
In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage. Fertilization and hatching rates were measured, and the developmental stages were analyzed at each stage before describing the main abnormalities. Ploidy status was analyzed by flow cytometry and blood smear. In the control group, 100% of the samples were diploid. After treatment for 60 min, 95.56 ± 4.44% samples were diploid and 4.44 ± 4.44% were triploid. After 120 min, 94.44 ± 9.62% of the samples was diploid and 5.56 ± 5.56% were triploid; 100% of the samples were diploid after 180 min and, after 240 min, there was no survival. In other treatments, the highest percentage of hatching was after 60 min (88.93 ± 5.15%; P = 0.015), and treatment with 180 min storage resulted in the highest percentage of abnormal larvae (95.76 ± 12.67%; P = 0.012). These results show that oocyte storage can affect ploidy status and may be an interesting parameter for analysis in studies on chromosome set manipulation and micromanipulation.