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This paper deals with the evolution of wages in the construction offices of Segovia, one of the most important Castilian and Spanish manufacturing towns, between 1571 and 1807. Part two deals with the nominal wages earned by the building officials and labourers of the city and part three presents the Segovian prices index between 1571 and 1807. Finally, part four analyses the evolution of the real wages earned in the construction offices of the town. Segovian real wages evolved in line with the local economy; after peaking in the first quarter of the 17th century, they experienced a continuous decline, so in 1807 the real wages of Segovian building officials and labourers were 50 per cent of those of the first quarter of the 17th century.
Both transposition of the great arteries (TGA) previously submitted to a Senning/Mustard procedure and congenitally corrected TGA (cc-TGA) have the systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle, thereby rendering these patients to heart failure events risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters for stratifying the risk of heart failure events in TGA patients.
Retrospective evaluation of adult TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise test in a tertiary centre. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year for the primary endpoint of cardiac death or heart failure hospitalisation. Several cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters were analysed as potential predictors of the combined endpoint and their predictive power were compared (area under the curve).
Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in 44 TGA patients (8 cc-TGA), with a mean age of 35.1 ± 8.4 years. The primary endpoint was reached by 10 (22.7%) patients, with a mean follow-up of 36.7 ± 26.8 months. Heart rate at anaerobic threshold had the highest area under the curve value (0.864), followed by peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) (0.838). Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm and pVO2 ≤20 ml/kg/min had a sensitivity of 87.5 and 80.0% and a specificity of 82.4 and 76.5%, respectively, for the primary outcome.
Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm had the highest predictive power of all cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters analysed for heart failure events in TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle.
The importance of the hippocampus and amygdala for disrupted emotional memory formation in depression is well-recognized, but it remains unclear whether functional abnormalities are state-dependent and whether they are affected by the persistence of depressive symptoms.
Thirty-nine patients with major depressive disorder and 28 healthy controls were included from the longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sub-study of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants performed an emotional word-encoding and -recognition task during fMRI at baseline and 2-year follow-up measurement. At baseline, all patients were in a depressed state. We investigated state-dependency by relating changes in brain activation over time to changes in symptom severity. Furthermore, the effect of time spent with depressive symptoms in the 2-year interval was investigated.
Symptom change was linearly associated with higher activation over time of the left anterior hippocampus extending to the amygdala during positive and negative word-encoding. Especially during positive word encoding, this effect was driven by symptomatic improvement. There was no effect of time spent with depression in the 2-year interval on change in brain activation. Results were independent of medication- and psychotherapy-use.
Using a longitudinal within-subjects design, we showed that hippocampal–amygdalar activation during emotional memory formation is related to depressive symptom severity but not persistence (i.e. time spent with depression or ‘load’), suggesting functional activation patterns in depression are not subject to functional ‘scarring’ although this hypothesis awaits future replication.
The Colombian industrial sector is moving toward alternative forms of treatment of industrial waste, considering that the waste can be a source of raw material in the production chain. Thus, aiming at the decrease in mineral fertilizer use, and maintaining or even raising the crop yield, the sugarcane industry has recently advanced in the composting of the industrial waste and application in the field, both of them being potentially sustainable practices. This manuscript reports the economic benefits and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the sugarcane production system in Colombia that has been simulated in this study to evaluate the beneficial effects of reusing industrial waste from ethanol production. This study was performed using the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (VSB) modeling software for the simulation of agricultural and industrial parameters on integrated alternatives for the sugarcane industry. Colombian sugarcane sector was modeled using three scenarios representing agricultural systems that do not use composted industrial waste vs a paired scenario for each condition where composted waste is utilized. Regarding compost and vinasse use as fertilizer and soil conditioner, GHG emissions from the biogenic origin are not included as a reported item in the matrix of GHG emissions of the sugarcane sector. Inputs for the economic and environmental assessment models are based on actual operational data from two mill sites, one located in the traditional sugarcane production region of Cauca River Valley and the other one, on the agricultural expansion region of Llanos Orientales. Here, we have found that the reuse of composted industrial waste is beneficial and provides an economic cost savings of 2–6% per year. However, it also results in an annual increase of 10–20% in the GHG emissions.
Invasions can be genetically diverse, and that diversity may have implications for invasion management in terms of resistance or tolerance to control methods. We analyzed the population genetics of Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), an ecologically important and common invasive tree found in many western U.S. riparian areas. We found three cpDNA haplotypes and, using 11 microsatellite loci, identified three genetic clusters in the 460 plants from 46 populations in the western United States. We found high levels of polymorphism in the microsatellites (5 to 15 alleles per locus; 106 alleles total). Our native-range sampling was limited, and we did not find a genetic match for the most common cpDNA invasive haplotype or a strong confirmation of origin for the most common microsatellite genetic cluster. We did not find geographic population structure (isolation by distance) across the U.S. invasion, but we did identify invasive populations that had the most diversity, and we suggest these as choices for initial biological control–release monitoring. Accessions from each genetic cluster, which coarsely represent the range of genetic diversity found in the invasion, are now included in potential classical biological control agent efficacy testing.
Disturbances in emotion regulation (ER) are characteristic of both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activation during cognitive ER in BD and SZ to understand the contribution of temporal characteristics of disturbed ER to their unique and shared symptomatology.
Forty-six participants performed an ER-task (BD, n = 15; SZ, n = 16; controls, n = 15) during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which they were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal techniques to regulate their emotional responses. Finite impulse response modeling was applied to estimate the temporal dynamics of brain responses during cognitive reappraisal (v. passive attending) of negative pictures. Group, time, and group × time effects were tested using multivariate modeling.
We observed a group × time interaction during ER in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior occipital gyrus. Patients with SZ demonstrated initial hyper-activation of the VLPFC and SMA activation that was not sustained in later regulatory phases. Response profiles in the inferior occipital gyrus in SZ showed abnormal activation in the later phases of regulation. BD-patients showed general blunted responsivity in these regions.
These results suggest that ER-disturbances in SZ are characterized by an inefficient initialization and failure to sustain regulatory control, whereas in BD, a failure to recruit regulatory resources may represent initial deficits in formulating adequate representations of the regulatory needs. This may help to further understand how ER-disturbances give rise to symptomatology of BD and SZ.
The aim of this study was to optimize protocols for electroporation (EP) and polyfection (PLF) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) for pig sperm transfection and to determine which method was the most efficient. For EP standardization, different voltages, amounts and times of electric pulses were tested using propidium iodide (PI) as reporter. For PLF standardization, different concentrations of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled PEI (PEI/FITC) were incubated with sperm for different periods of time. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate the best protocol in terms of cell viability, including cytoplasmic membrane, acrosome, chromatin integrities and mitochondrial potential using the FITC probe, PI, acridine orange (AO) and JC1. Transfections with the plasmid pmhyGENIE-5 were carried out under optimum conditions for each procedure (EP: 500 volts, 500 μs and two pulses; PLF: PEI 0.5 mg/ml and incubation time 10 min). Transfection efficacy was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A lower transfection rate was observed for sperm in the control group (17.8%) compared with EP (36.7%), with PLF (76.8%) being the most efficient. These results suggest that the EP and PEI could be an efficient and low cost transfection method for swine sperm. Notably, treated cells showed higher plasmatic the membrane damage (PMD) and/or acrosome damage (AD) indexes, therefore the combination of this procedure with biotechniques that facilitate fecundation (i.e. in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) or even inclusion of antioxidant or anti-apoptotic drugs to improve spermatozoa viability would be important.
Today, cognitive dysfunction is accepted as a feature of schizophrenia. As the patients age, this dysfunction is higher and harder to evaluate due to the interaction among aging, other somatic diseases, psychoactive drugs, etc.
In fish with external fertilization, sperm must reach the oocyte through the micropyle to enter the cytoplasm. Fertilization success is then influenced by characteristics of oocytes or sperm. In this study, we evaluated oocyte morphology and sperm motility parameters and their effects on the inseminating dose in a teleost fish Astyanax altiparanae. Interestingly, we found one of the lowest yet described inseminating doses in teleosts (2390 spermatozoa oocyte−1 ml−1). Such a fertilization efficacy may be explained by the long duration of sperm motility (>75 s), the small oocyte diameter (695.119 µm), large micropyle diameter (7.57 µm), and the presence of grooves on the oocyte surface that guides spermatozoon to the fertilization area. Additionally, we have described for the first time a structure that combines grooves on the chorion surface and a ridge in the micropylar area.
Popocatépetl (19°02’ N, 98°62’W; 5424 m) is one of the largest active stratovolcanoes in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. A glacier located on the north side has undergone severe ablation since the volcano reinitiated eruptive activity in December 1994. In our study, we calculate the extent of the glacier recession and the loss in glacial mass balance during the period of greatest laharic activity (1994–2002), using photogrammetric treatment of 20 pairs of aerial photographs. The results indicate that from November 1997 to December 2002, the glacier released approximately 3 967 000 m3 of water. A period of intense glacier melting occurred from 4 November 2000 to 15 March 2001 during which time 717 000 m3 of water was released. Much of the melting was attributed to the pyroclastic flow that took place on 22 January 2001 and produced a 14.2 km lahar with 68 000 m3 of water. Among the many types of volcanic events, pyroclastic flows were the most effective in causing sudden snowmelt, although small explosions were also effective since they deposited incandescent material on the glacier. The collapse of the plinian columns covered the glacier with pyroclasts and increased its volume. The existence of control points for georeferencing and a knowledge of the topography underlying the glacier previous to the eruption would have provided more accurate and useful results for hazard prevention.
A glacier inventory for península Córdova, isla Riesco, Chilean Patagonia (53°14’ S, 73°00’W), has been compiled based on stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs of March and December 1984 and 1:100 000 topographic maps. Three small icefields comprising 33 glacier outlets, in addition to 12 small separate glaciers, have been identified, with a total area of 57 km2. Glaciers are located on mountain peaks with a maximum altitude of 1183 mand a lowermost elevation of 100 m. All glaciers terminate on land, except for three glaciers calving into small fresh-water lakes. A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image of 6 October 1986 has been rectified and analyzed using a supervised classification to estimate snow- and glacier-covered surfaces. Glacier-area data derived from satellite-image analyses have been adjusted at península Córdova using photo-interpreted data, and extrapolated to estimate a glacier area of 215 ±40km2 for all of isla Riesco. The presence of trimlines and moraines beyond the present position of the glaciers indicates a generalized retreat from a maximum neoglacial position at península Córdova, most probably as a result of regional warming and precipitation decrease observed during the last century.
We describe the development of a low-frequency airborne radar specifically designed for the sounding of temperate ice. The system operates at a central frequency of 1 MHz and consists of an impulse transmitter with an output voltage up to 5000 V and a digital receiver with a maximum gain of 80 dB. The radar was deployed on board a CASA 212 aircraft, which also carries a laser altimeter, an inertial navigation system, a digital camera and a GPS receiver. A description of the radar system is provided, as well as preliminary results obtained at Glaciar Tyndall, Campo de Hielo Sur (Southern Patagonia Icefield), where an ice depth of 670 m was reached.
Despite their importance as freshwater reservoirs for downstream river systems, few glaciers in central Chile have been comprehensively surveyed. This study presents ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and field-based observations for characterizing the englacial and basal conditions of Glaciar Olivares Alfa (33°110 S, 70°130 W), central Chilean Andes. Using a 50 MHz radar mounted onto a helicopter platform, data were collected covering large portions of the glacier accumulation and ablation zones. The radar data revealed boundaries of a temperate-ice layer at the base of the eastern body of Glaciar Olivares Alfa which appears to be covered by colder ice that extends throughout large parts of the glacier. The thickness of the temperate ice layer is highly variable across the glacier, being on average 40% of the total ice thickness. Radar data analyses reveal regions of cold ice at the bottom/base of the glacier and also patterns of highly saturated sediments beneath the glacier. Using GPR data, this study represents the most exhaustive analysis of glacier ice structure performed in the central Chilean Andes. The results will enable improved estimations of the glacier’s mass balance and ice dynamics, helping us to understand its further development and its impact on water availability.
In order to measure total ice thickness and surface snow accumulation in Antarctica, we have designed and built a surveying system comprising two types of radar. This system is aimed at having low power consumption, low weight/volume and low construction cost. The system has a pulse-compression radar to measure ice thickness, and a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) radar designed to measure hundreds of meters of surface snow/firn layers with high resolution. The pulse-compression radar operates at 155MHz, 20 MHz of bandwidth; and the FM-CW radar operates from 550 to 900 MHz. The system was tested in December 2010 at Union Glacier (79°46'S, 83°24'W), West Antarctica, during an oversnow campaign, where Union and other nearby glaciers (Schanz, Schneider and Balish) were covered through 82 km of track. Ice thickness of 1540m and snow/firn thickness of 120 m were detected in the area. The collected data allowed the subglacial topography, internal ice structure, isochronous and the snow/ice boundary layer to be detected. Here we describe radar electronics, their main features and some of the results obtained during the first test campaign. Further improvements will focus on the adaptation of the system to be implemented on board airplane platforms.
A new species of holothurian of the genus Psolus Oken, 1815 is described. Psolus rufus sp. nov. was found in the central Cantabrian slope (Bay of Biscay) at 1500 m depth. The new species is characterized by having: ovoid body, reddish colour in vivo; dorsal area enclosed in a complete test composed of imbricating scales; 10 triangular plates of the same size surrounding mouth; 10 oral tentacles; no dorsal papillae; tube feet in two rows in the ventrolateral radii but one single row in the medial third or the body; ossicles are big dorsal plates and small plates in the sole, which are smooth, irregular and perforated. The molecular study of the COI gene supports the morphological results, grouping P. rufus sp. nov. together with other members of the genus. However, the new species is genetically distinct from the two groups (Antarctic and Canadian) of the available sequenced Psolus species. Furthermore, a key to the Psolus species of the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean is provided.
Chronic low grade inflammation is considered to contribute to the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy (DR). We recently demonstrated that lack of CD40 in mice ameliorates the upregulation of inflammatory molecules in the diabetic retina and prevented capillary degeneration, a hallmark of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the contribution of CD40 to diabetes-induced reductions in retinal function via the electroretinogram (ERG) to determine if inflammation plays a role in the development of ERG defects associated with diabetes. We demonstrate that diabetic CD40−/− mice are not protected from reduction to the ERG b-wave despite failing to upregulate inflammatory molecules in the retina. Our data therefore supports the hypothesis that retinal dysfunction found in diabetics occurs independent of the induction of inflammatory processes.
Microelectrodes have attracted great interest for electroanalysis because of their unique properties, such as nonlinear diffusion, increased rate of mass transport and reduced capacitance, which allows a fast response. In this work, we created a porous nanocomposite of boron doped diamond (BDD) deposited on carbon nanotubes – reduced graphene oxide (CNTs – RGO) by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) technique. The resulting material yielded porous BDD microelectrodes. On the first step, we have grown the CNTs on carbon fiber (CF) surface by Thermal CVD in a tubular reactor. Camphor solution and Fe-Co were carbon and catalyst source, respectively. For exfoliation, CNTs were treated by hydrogen plasma and oxygen plasma. We applied a seeding solution containing nanodiamond dispersed in KCl aqueous solution. Diamond nanoparticles interact with oxygen-containing groups on CNTs, promoting an efficient seeding. We deposited BDD films in an HFCVD reactor using methane/hydrogen gas mixtures. For doping, a partial hydrogen flow bubbled in a closed vessel containing a solution of boron oxide dissolved in methanol. The microelectrodes were characterized by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Field Emission Gun and Cyclic Voltammetry. The crystalline quality of CNTs and BDD doping level were studied by Raman analysis. SEM micrographs showed that nanocomposite presented high porosity. Electrochemical analysis showed that the deposition of BDD on CNTs-RGO increased the electrochemical response of the microelectrode. Besides, this electrode presented a low capacitive current in comparison with BDD grown on flat substrates. Further, the porous BDD nanocomposite showed itself to be promising in electroanalysis.
J.M. Tronson believed that the language of the word-list which he collected in 1856 on the Lower Amur, and published twice in 1859 was Nivkh. Among contemporary scholars, only Roman Jakobson noted that the language of Tronson's word-list is not Nivkh, but Tungusic. Unfortunately, neither Jakobson nor other specialists have specified what language that might be. We confirm E.G. Ravenstein's unnoticed assertion of 1861 that the language is Oroch and, from this new perspective, we offer a critical edition of Tronson's pseudo-Nivkh word-list.