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In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project between the University of Puerto Rico- Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC) has trained US, GS and F (participants) of HSPs to engage them in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: First stage of the training sessions (TS) dealt with the theory of CTR. After TS and responding to their research interests, as answered in a questionnaire, the participants formed a CTMT, under the mentorship of a well-established CT researcher. This, as a prelude to their hands-on experiences in Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO), for which a research proposal is needed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Five (5) CTMTs were formed in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–, as submitted in their research concept papers.Eight (8) CT researchers are currently mentoring 2 US, 7 GS and 6 F of HSPs through the CTMTs. They have submitted a research proposal, as a bridge between the theory in the TS and the practice in IDEARIO. Five (5) proposals were received and 2 of them approved, while the other 3 are in the evaluation process. We will present the composition, research topics, development of research and the feedback of participants in IDEARIO and CTMTs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTMTs and their respective proposals are effective strategies for the mentoring of US, GS and F in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Funding for mental health services in England faces many challenges, including operating under financial constraints where it is not easy to demonstrate the link between activity and funding. Mental health services need to operate alongside and collaborate with acute physical hospital services, where there is a well-established system for paying for activity. The funding landscape is shifting at a rapid pace and we outline the distinctions between the three main options – block contracts, episodic payment and capitation. Classification of treatment episodes via clustering presents an opportunity to demonstrate activity and reward it within these payment approaches. We discuss the results of our research into how well the clustering system is performing against a number of fundamental criteria. We find that, according to these criteria, clusters are falling short of providing a sound basis for measuring and financing services. Nevertheless, we argue that clustering is the best available option and is essential for a more transparent funding approach for mental healthcare to demonstrate its claim on resources, and that clusters should therefore be a starting point for evolving a better funding system.
•Understand the different payment models currently being used and proposed in mental health services in England
•Understand the role of clustering in measuring mental health activity and providing a basis for funding
•Understand how a robust model of clustering can benefit the provision of mental health services
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus and Universidad Central del Caribe, through the Title V Cooperative Project, devised a clinical and translational research (CTR) platform to pipeline students/faculty of undergraduate health sciences programs into CTR. Educational interventions in CTR—introductory intervention (II) and Annual Symposium (AS)—were designed to promote awareness, stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the II the participants (n=159) were surveyed before and after a presentation and panel discussion about CTR. In addition, after the sessions—plenary, panel, and workshop—about CTR, the participants of AS (n=42) were surveyed for satisfaction and learning experience in CTR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most participants of the II, 134 (84.3%) were students. In total, 58 (58, 36.5%) completed the post II survey. Of these, 53.4% satisfactorily defined the CTR concept Versus only 31.0% that could define CTR in the pre survey, 47 (81.7%) were unable to identify a CTR researcher and 45 (78.3 %) expressed interest in learning about CTR. In total, 28 (28, 66.7%) participants of the AS completed the satisfaction survey, out of which 17 (60.6%) were students. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that the AS served as a vehicle to increase their knowledge in CTR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The educational interventions demonstrated to be an effective strategy to promote awareness and stimulate interest of students and faculty in CTR. In addition, the results obtained, provided valuable baseline information for the planning—development of training cycles in CTR.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers’ reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products.
In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product.
Controlled classroom experiments
Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women).
In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products’ nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products.
This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by chemical coprecipitation technique from aqueous solutions of iron salts, the synthesis was carried out in an alkaline medium, obtaining magnetic nanoparticles of around 2-10 nm in size. The nanoparticles obtained were stabilized with polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP), the particle size was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the crystal structure of the magnetic nanoparticles obtained was verified by X-ray diffraction (DRX). The chemical composition of the nanoparticles powder was investigated using electron scanning microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipment. Optical properties as absorption was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA), which course with an uncontrolled inflammation and nitro-oxidative stresses, although it is well known that amoeba has an effective defence mechanisms against this toxic environment, the underlying molecular factors responsible for progression of tissue damage remain largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine during the acute stage of ALA in hamsters, the involvement of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are activated in response to oxidative stress. From 12 h post-infection the ALA was visible, haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stains were consistent with these observations, and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase serum activities were increased too. At 48 h after infection, liver glycogen content was significantly reduced. Western blot analyses showed that 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal peaked at 12 h, while glycogen synthase kinase-3β, cleaved caspase-3, pNF-κB, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were overexpressed from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Otherwise, Nrf2 and superoxide dismutase-1, decreased at 48 h and catalase declined at 36 and 48 h. Furthermore, heme oxygenase-1 was increased at 12 and 24 h and decreased to normal levels at 36 and 48 h. These findings suggest for the first time that the host antioxidant system of Nrf2 is influenced during ALA.
Economic and social impacts of aging trends will be of the utmost importance in the near future. We embed a stylized pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension system into a DSGE model with overlapping generations to assess the macroeconomic effects of aging in a small Euro Area economy. The simulations suggest large negative impacts on GDP and private consumption. In addition, external imbalances may widen significantly under the PAYG system. All results are conditional on the policy options addressing debt sustainability–the impacts tend to be very large if the government finances the aging with higher social security premia instead of lower replacement ratios. Sensitivity analysis reveals that GDP and private consumption impacts are less robust than those on external imbalances. Results also imply that supranational policy coordination may be crucial if the objective is to preserve economic and financial stability in the Euro Area.
The sulfentrazone is regularly applied to sugarcane crop harvest residue for
PRE control of weedy species, especially in the dry season during the year,
but little is known about how rainfall timing or crop residue mass affect
the release of sulfentrazone into the soil and its subsequent effectiveness.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sugarcane residue
mass (5, 10, 15, and 20 t ha−1) and rainfall timing (1, 30, and
60 d after herbicide application) on sulfentrazone retention. Rainfall
volumes were simulated at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, and 100 mm. A 20-mm
rainfall volume was simulated at 7 and 14 d after the first simulated event.
The water passing through the straw was collected after each rainfall
simulation. The concentration of sulfentrazone was measured by liquid
chromatography and mass spectrometry. The initial 20 mm of rain released the
maximum mass of sulfentrazone from the sugarcane residue. The mass of
sugarcane residue affected the amount of sulfentrazone recovered. The amount
of sulfentrazone released from the residue was significantly reduced by the
persistence on the residue surface for long periods before the occurrence of
rain. During periods of low rainfall, recommendations for sulfentrazone rate
must take into account losses that occur when applied over the harvest
residues to design a weed-management plan that does not compromise efficacy
and duration of the residual effects.
Cognitive assessment with virtual reality (VR) may have superior ecological validity for older adults compared to traditional pencil-and-paper cognitive assessment. However, few studies have reported the development of VR tasks. The aim of this study was to present the development, feasibility, content validity, and preliminary evidence of construct validity of an ecological task of cognitive assessment for older adults in VR (ECO-VR). The tasks were prepared based on theoretical and clinical backgrounds. We had 29 non-expert judges identify virtual visual stimuli and three-dimensional scenarios, and five expert judges assisted with content analysis and developing instructions. Finally, six older persons participated in three pilot studies and thirty older persons participated in the preliminary study to identify construct validity evidence. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and partial correlation. Target stimuli and three-dimensional scenarios were judged adequate and the content analysis demonstrated that ECO-VR evaluates temporo-spatial orientation, memory, language and executive functioning. We made significant changes to the instructions after the pilot studies to increase comprehensibility and reduce the completion time. The total score of ECO-VR was positively correlated mainly with performance in executive function (r = .172, p < .05) and memory tests (r = .488, p ≤ .01). The ECO-VR demonstrated feasibility for cognitive assessment in older adults, as well as content and construct validity evidences.
In recent decades conducting polymers have attracted attention due to their promising and versatile applications in different fields. There is a considerable interest in the application of nanotubes multilayer carbon (MWCNT) because of their unique structure, high electrical conductivity, high chemical stability, and high surface-to-volume ratio. These properties make MWCNT extremely attractive for fabricating sensors. Composites based on a matrix of a biopolymer such as the chitosan (CS) with a lot of conductive polymers or (MWCNT), have received increasing attention due to their attractive structural, mechanical and electrical properties that could have applications in different fields such as tissue engineering, biomedicine, and manufacture of sensors and biosensors. Have been reported conducting polymer composites with an extensive range of interesting mechanical and electrical properties, which is reported in this paper to obtain films by ultrasonic bath mixing of Chitosan 3% w/v using polypyrrole (PPy) and multilayer carbon nanotubes. Surface characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical properties were analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a frequency range 0.01 - 10E+5 Hz to 10 mV AC. The results show that the films of CS/PPy/MWCNT have a homogeneous distribution where the chitosan envelops the loads, while for EIS retention load was observed within the matrix observing these materials in accordance with the equivalent circuit of Warburg showing diffusional process.
Chitosan is biocompatible polymer has a great commercial interest because it can be processed in a sort of devices varying in shape and size, such as membranes, gels and nanoparticles. Mostly, the cell’s attachment and proliferation are very positive on nanostructurated materials with a three-dimensional formation. An irreversible network can be produced by covalently binding the polymer to the cross-linker molecules. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. This crosss-liker mostly reacts with chitosan amino groups. In order to control and understand the physical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticle, in this work is showed the molecular behavior of chitosan/glutaraldehyde from the viewpoint of molecular interactions base in a series of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation. The results indicated the conformations of both molecules, which had a significant influence on the molecular association. The chitosan chains were uniformly distributed presenting a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix. This was due to the various associations such as intramolecular chitosan interactions –O-H···O-C-. While the chitosan-glutaraldehyde associations were due to the positive net charge density of hydrogens in the chitosan plus - H2N···C=O associations. In solid state chitosan nano and microparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to the micrographs results, the nanoparticles presented a monomorphism with piles of particles arranged in linear order which was consistent with the conformations determined by simulation.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Symbionts in sponges must interact with the host immune system, and this can be mediated by immunomodulators. As the bases of the immune system in sponges resemble those of higher metazoans, it is possible that compounds from this microbiota show similar effects in other phyla. It is also known that several antibiotics, in special macrolides, can modulate many components of the immune response and sponges and their associated microorganisms are a rich source of these compounds. Therefore, we tested the immunosuppressive capacity of antibiotic substances produced by bacterial and fungal strains isolated from the Amazon freshwater sponge Metania reticulata. Fourteen bacterial and six fungal strains were obtained from samples of M. reticulata collected in the Negro River (Amazon Central Basin region), during the dry season. These cultures were monitored for natural antimicrobial activity, and two Bacillus strains (MERETb.761 and MERETb.762) and one fungus (MERETf.010) were selected. One Bacillus strain, MERETb.762, showed strong and specific antibiosis on Staphylococcus aureus and two fractions of its extract inhibited the degranulation of RBL–2H3 cells. The predicted formulas of these fractions were C12H6N4O8 and C25H4N2O6, both corresponding to nitroaromatic compounds.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Coffee is a relatively rich source of chlorogenic acids (CGA), which, as other polyphenols, have been postulated to exert preventive effects against CVD and type 2 diabetes. As a considerable proportion of ingested CGA reaches the large intestine, CGA may be capable of exerting beneficial effects in the large gut. Here, we utilise a stirred, anaerobic, pH-controlled, batch culture fermentation model of the distal region of the colon in order to investigate the impact of coffee and CGA on the growth of the human faecal microbiota. Incubation of coffee samples with the human faecal microbiota led to the rapid metabolism of CGA (4 h) and the production of dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid, while caffeine remained unmetabolised. The coffee with the highest levels of CGA (P< 0·05, relative to the other coffees) induced a significant increase in the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. relative to the control vessel at 10 h after exposure (P< 0·05). Similarly, an equivalent quantity of CGA (80·8 mg, matched with that in high-CGA coffee) induced a significant increase in the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. (P< 0·05). CGA alone also induced a significant increase in the growth of the Clostridium coccoides–Eubacteriumrectale group (P< 0·05). This selective metabolism and subsequent amplification of specific bacterial populations could be beneficial to host health.