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Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
A high percentage of patients have a diagnosis of adjustment disorder (AD) when they arrive at primary care (PC) appointments. However, most of them do not receive adequate psychological treatment. The present study’s aim is to determine the efficacy of a group psychological treatment program in patients with AD. The sample consisted of patients with AD from two PC units in Valencia, from which two groups were randomly generated: A treatment group (n = 31) and a waiting-list group (n = 20), homogeneous in terms of socio-demographic and psychometric variables prior to treatment. Treatment consisted of eight one-hour group sessions held on a weekly basis; taking a cognitive-behavioral approach, they addressed aspects like controlling anxiety, cognitive restructuring, and coping techniques. The variables analyzed were: Psychopathology (Revised Symptom Inventory, SCL–90–R), health-related quality of life (Health Questionnaire, SF–12), and risk of suicidal behavior (Suicide Risk Scale). Means comparisons, ANCOVAs, and tests of effect size were performed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the variables, such that after intervention, the experimental group exhibited less anxious (F = 4.11, p =.048, η2 = .08) and depressive symptoms (F = 2.41, p =.029, η 2= .10) and higher quality of life related to physical (F = 7.17, p =.010, η2 = .13) and emotional health (F = 10.31, p =.002, η2 = .18). For the reasons above, we conclude that a comprehensive approach to emotional distress in PC, including group psychological interventions, is one solution for the demand for social services, and could provide savings on economic as well as human costs.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders.
In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments.
After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4).
PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.
The Spanish Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (REDETS) is a group of eight agencies, units and services, depending on National and Regional Governments that coordinate their work within a common methodological framework, guided by the principles of mutual recognition and cooperation. In this work, guided by the necessity of implementing a Quality Management System, we present the process to achieve this objective.
As an initial step, a review was carried out based on a structured search strategy in the main electronic databases Medline and EMBASE, and a manual search in websites of national and international agencies (March 2016) in order to collate previous knowledge and experiences. Through the information included in this review, a proposal to create a quality, self-evaluating tool is necessary.
In total, 800 references were found and finally 6 studies were included in the review (1-3). All had a similar structure. Some lists of good practices, classified in dimensions related to different quality aspects in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) organizations, were found. Also some information about questions for evaluating quality standards was indicated. Taking all this information, a proposal of sixty-six standard titles was put forward. These standards were then grouped into twelve quality criteria structured in four dimensions: I Responsibility, II Clients and Stakeholders, III Production Process and IV Resources.
Based on the systematic review, we developed a proposal for a self-evaluating tool and this is the baseline for a common Quality Management System for the Spanish Network of HTA Agencies. The quality management process will require the development of a handbook by each member of REDETS that will be based on agreed quality standards.
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure.
We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478–15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA).
A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor.
These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
Although childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.
To examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage.
Epidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys (n = 27017).
Four childhood adversities (physical and sexual abuse, neglect, parent psychopathology) were associated with similarly increased odds of PTSD following traumatic experiences (odds ratio (OR)=1.8), whereas the other eight childhood adversities assessed did not predict PTSD. Childhood adversity–PTSD associations did not vary across traumatic experience types, but were stronger in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood than later adulthood.
Childhood adversities are differentially associated with PTSD, with the strongest associations in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood. Consistency of associations across traumatic experience types suggests that childhood adversities are associated with generalised vulnerability to PTSD following traumatic experiences.
Diverse skeletal assemblage has been discovered in the Ediacaran/Cambrian strata of the Codos locality in NE Spain (Aragón, Cadenas Ibéricas). This assemblage includes at least seven genera, only three of which can be ascribed to known taxa. All the fossils are preserved in phosphate but their original microstructures are traceable by both elementary composition and microstructural features that are indicative for primary aragonite and high-magnesium calcite biomineralogies. Already these early skeletal fossils show sophisticated microstructures represented by heterogeneous multilayered composites to satisfy the requirements for better protection against both chemical dissolution and mechanical predator deterioration. The most common and best-preserved fossil, which is tubicolous Codositubulus grioensis gen. et sp. nov., is described here. The composition of the fossil assemblage and its stratigraphic position are indicative for the lowermost Terreneuvian (lower Cambrian) or even pre-Terreneuvian age of this fauna.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide.
To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards.
Representative community household surveys from 21 countries as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Of 51 547 respondents, 4.6% met 12-month criteria for DSM-IV MDD and of these 56.7% reported needing treatment. Among those who recognised their need for treatment, most (71.1%) made at least one visit to a service provider. Among those who received treatment, only 41.0% received treatment that met minimal standards. This resulted in only 16.5% of all individuals with 12-month MDD receiving minimally adequate treatment.
Only a minority of participants with MDD received minimally adequate treatment: 1 in 5 people in high-income and 1 in 27 in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Scaling up care for MDD requires fundamental transformations in community education and outreach, supply of treatment and quality of services.
The main purpose of coatings is to increase the lifetime of cutting tools, to perform continuous and economical material removal process, reducing the frequency of sharpening or replacement of the tool, which contributes to increase quality of product. Therefore, hafnium nitride (HfN) single layer coatings were deposited on High-speed steel by Magnetron Sputtering physical vapour deposition (PVD). The machining on AISI 1020 steel samples were carried out in a computer numerical control (CNC) machine, using coated and uncoated tools, the temperature of the different components were measured (steel bar and tool), due to continuous temperature measurement help to predict tool wear and the quality of finished piece  . In order to evaluate wear resistance and performance, not only temperature data were compared, the tool wear morphological analysis for flank wear was carried using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and work pieces roughness were checked through their surfaces in an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In most of the parameters evaluated differences between the tools were identified, and results reveals that on HfN coating, occurs less wear, due the proportionality between the energy transfer and the tool deterioration, also the coating improves surface finish of the machined part; all of them are reflected in changes on process temperatures. The use of single layer HfN coating on cutting tools could increase their lifetime, improve the quality of the work piece, and even reduce process time and cost.
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18–29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50–76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps < .05). The younger participants reported more rumination (p < .01). Women scored higher in depression scores and lower in distraction than men (ps < .05). There were no significant effects of age, gender, or interaction of age by gender on the recall of specific autobiographical memories (ps > .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
We present a set of Molecular Dynamics simulations of the axial elongation of gold nanowires, and the compression of silver decahedral nanowires by a carbon AFM tip. We used Sutton and Chen multibody potentials to describe the metallic interactions, a Tersoff potential to simulate the carbon-carbon interactions, and a 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential to describe the metal-carbon interactions. In the elongation simulations, gold nanowires were subjected to strain at several rates, and we concentrated our attention in the specific case of a wire with an atomistic arrangement based on the intercalation of icosahedral motifs forming a Boerdijk-Coxeter (BCB) spiral, and compare it against results of nanowires with fcc structure and (001), (011), and (111) orientations. We found that the BCB nanowire is more resistant to breakage than the fcc nanowires. In the simulations of lateral compression, we made a strain analysis of the trajectories, finding that when a gold decahedral nanowire is compressed by the AFM tip in a direction parallel to a (100) face, the plastic deformation regime is considerably larger than in the case of compression exerted in a direction parallel to a twin plane, where the fracture of the wire comes almost immediately after the elastic range ends. The strain distribution and elastic response in the compression of nanoparticles with different geometries is also discussed.
Although individual radio pulses from pulsars vary in amplitude from pulse to pulse, their height distribution in general does not extend to amplitudes more than 10 times the mean. Two notable exceptions are the Crab pulsar and PSR B1937+21 (Lundgren 1995, Cognard et al. 1996 and references therein) which occasionally emit single radio pulses that have amplitudes more than 100 times the mean. Here we report on the detection of short time-scale, extremely large amplitude radio pulses from the nearby millisecond pulsar PSR J0437–4715. The events we have observed are distinguished by having peak flux densities in excess of 10 times the average pulse amplitude, and occur only within a very narrow (80 µs) window centered on the main pulse.
To date there have been few polarimetric observations of millisecond pulsars, mainly due to the instrumental challenge of simultaneous high time resolution and large bandwidth. Such observations provide our most direct clues to the structure of the magnetic fields around pulsars, and are especially important in the case of millisecond pulsars, where radio emission necessarily originates very close to the neutron star surface.
We have observed the bright millisecond pulsar J0437–4715 at the Parkes Radiotelescope with the Caltech Fast Pulsar Timing Machine, at several radio frequencies and in full polarimetric mode. Our analyses show significant deviations from the standard dipole field geometry.
To prospectively assess the associations between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish intakes and risk of stroke in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain).
Fish intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between the intakes of lean fish, fatty fish and total fish and stroke risk. Models were run separately for men and women.
Five Spanish regions (Asturias, San Sebastian, Navarra, Granada and Murcia).
Individuals (n 41 020; 15 490 men and 25 530 women) aged 20–69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2008 (December 2006 in the case of Asturias). Only participants with definite incident stroke were considered as cases.
During a mean follow-up of 13·8 years, 674 strokes were identified and subsequently validated by record linkage with hospital discharge databases, primary-care records and regional mortality registries, comprising 531 ischaemic, seventy-nine haemorrhagic, forty-two subarachnoid and twenty-two unspecific strokes. After multiple adjustments, no significant associations were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and the risk of stroke in men or women. In men, results revealed a non-significant trend towards an inverse association between lean fish (hazard ratio=0·84; 95 % CI 0·55, 1·29, Ptrend=0·06) and total fish consumption (hazard ratio=0·77; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·16, Ptrend=0·06) and risk of total stroke.
In the EPIC-Spain cohort, no association was found between lean fish, fatty fish and total fish consumption and risk of stroke.