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Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
This study examined (1) the association of dietary energy density from solid (EDS) and solid plus liquids (EDSL) with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children with overweight and obesity, (2) the effect of under-reporting on the mentioned associations and (3) whether the association between ED and body composition and CRF is influenced by levels of physical activity. In a cross-sectional design, 208 overweight and obese children (8–12-year-old; 111 boys) completed two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. ED was calculated using two different approaches: EDS and EDSL. Under-reporters were determined with the Goldberg method. Body composition, anthropometry and fasting blood sample measurements were performed. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was registered with accelerometers (7-d-register). Linear regressions were performed to evaluate the association of ED with the previously mentioned variables. Neither EDS nor EDSL were associated with body composition or CRF. However, when under-reporters were excluded, EDS was positively associated with BMI (P=0·019), body fat percentage (P=0·005), abdominal fat (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·018), while EDSL was positively associated with body fat percentage (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·026). When stratifying the group according to physical activity recommendations, the aforementioned associations were only maintained for non-compliers. Cluster analysis showed that the low-ED and high-MVPA group presented the healthiest profile for all adiposity and CRF. These findings could partly explain inconsistencies in literature, as we found that different ED calculations entail distinct results. Physical activity levels and excluding under-reporters greatly influence the associations between ED and adiposity in children with overweight and obesity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Deaf communities in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) struggle to organize, advocate, and reach social and health equity in their nations. In the Dominican Republic (DR), the health and social status of Deaf citizens is unclear, which obfuscates action and advocacy based on data. A set of successful pre-existing US-DR partnerships that function well but were not previously connected, organized around submission of a community-based NIH research grant and pilot work to support it. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adapting the Partnership Synergy Framework for this purpose, we evaluate the partnership, its evolution, and its experience in implementing formative research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our experience showed the local Deaf community organization easily recruited and interfaced with the Deaf community; presence of a trusted external organization facilitated entry of the PUCMM-UR research team; and stakeholders are enthusiastic about the partnership, its outputs, and the ability to recruit Dominican Deaf citizens into research. The partnership organized around production of an R21 to the Fogarty International Center (NIH), including Human Subjects certification, budget and scope of work negotiation, and inclusion of preliminary data. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The engagement of Deaf communities globally is virtually non-existent in clinical and translational research. This partnership in the Dominican Republic shows that partners can organize around common goals and identify logistics required to produce pilot data and an NIH grant.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Qualitative approaches help explore poorly understood phenomenon, and are highly engaging, enabling both sides of an encounter greater connection. Historically, Deaf communities have been marginalized and oppressed, with their linguistic needs unrecognized and ignored. As a result, Deaf participants are rarely involved in clinical research. Like other marginalized communities, the Deaf community experiences health disparity compared with others, especially in low- and middle-income settings. The purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of conducting qualitative research with Deaf Dominicans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We implemented a partnered research process with 59 Deaf community members in the Dominican Republic, conducting preliminary thematic analysis through reviews of interviews and on-site debriefings. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants were highly engaged with the Deaf-Deaf research encounters, indicating satisfaction with both the process and with the opportunity to communicate their needs and interests. Preliminary findings indicated Deaf Dominicans were highly engaged, confirming their interest, and often stated that they felt they were being listened for the first time. Indeed, some participants claimed that this was the first time they communicated their experiences as Deaf Dominicans and appreciated the opportunity to relate this experience to Deaf interviewers. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This experience confirms that the Deaf Dominican community can be mobilized and will participate in Deaf-Deaf research.
Graded exercises tests are performed in adult populations; nonetheless, the use of this type of assessment is greatly understudied in overweight and obese adolescents.
To investigate heart rate autonomic responses to submaximal aerobic exercise in obese and overweight adolescents.
We recruited 40 adolescents divided into two groups: (1) overweight group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls between Z-score +1 and +2 and (2) obese group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls above Z-score >+2. Heart rate variability was analysed before (T1) and after exercise (T2–T4) on treadmill at a slope of 0%, with 70% of the maximal estimated heart rate (220 – age) for 20 minutes.
Heart rate in the overweight group was: 93.2±10.52 bpm versus 120.8±13.49 bpm versus 94.6±11.65 bpm versus 93.0±9.23 bpm, and in the obese group was: 92.0±15.41 bpm versus 117.6±16.31 bpm versus 92.1±12.9 bpm versus 91.8±14.33 bpm. High frequency in the overweight group was: 640±633.1 ms2 versus 84±174.66 ms2 versus 603.5±655.31 ms2 versus 762.6±807.21 ms2, and in the obese group was: 628.4±779.81 ms2 versus 65.4±119.34 ms2 versus 506.2±482.70 ms2 versus 677.9±939.05 ms2; and root mean square of successive differences in the overweight group was: 37.9±18.81 ms versus 10.9±8.41 ms versus 32.8±24.07 ms versus 36.7±21.86 ms, and in the obese group was: 38.7±23.17 ms versus 11.5±8.62 ms versus 32.3±16.74 ms versus 37.3±24.21 ms. These values significantly changed during exercise compared with resting values in overweight and obese groups. Moreover, we also reported no significant difference of resting parasympathetic control of heart rate between obese and overweight adolescents.
There was no significant difference of autonomic responses elicited by submaximal aerobic exercise between overweight and obese adolescents.
Asymmetric membranes present promising characteristics for wound dressing applications. A porous structure uptakes the wound exudate, whereas an occlusive layer (upper film) inhibits the microbial penetration and prevents an excessive loss of water. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a natural polysaccharide that has been investigated as wound dressings in the form of films, sponges, and hydrogels due to its flexibility, swelling capacity, biocompatibility, and low cost. However, there are no studies on literature regarding the development of KGM asymmetric membranes. In this study, we investigated a new casting–freezing process for the production of KGM asymmetric membranes. The scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated an asymmetric morphology and a good thermal stability of the membrane samples, respectively. Moreover, biological, mechanical, and fluid-handling capacity tests showed that the membrane is biocompatible and resistant to handling structure, which was also able to retain the ideal moist conditions for wound healing.
The patterns of comorbidity among mental disorders have led researchers to model the underlying structure of psychopathology. While studies have suggested a structure including internalizing and externalizing disorders, less is known with regard to the cross-national stability of this model. Moreover, little data are available on the placement of eating disorders, bipolar disorder and psychotic experiences (PEs) in this structure.
We evaluated the structure of mental disorders with data from the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, including 15 lifetime mental disorders and six PEs. Respondents (n = 5478–15 499) were included from 10 high-, middle- and lower middle-income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate and compare the fit of different factor structures to the lifetime disorder data. Measurement invariance was evaluated with multigroup CFA (MG-CFA).
A second-order model with internalizing and externalizing factors and fear and distress subfactors best described the structure of common mental disorders. MG-CFA showed that this model was stable across countries. Of the uncommon disorders, bipolar disorder and eating disorder were best grouped with the internalizing factor, and PEs with a separate factor.
These results indicate that cross-national patterns of lifetime common mental-disorder comorbidity can be explained with a second-order underlying structure that is stable across countries and can be extended to also cover less common mental disorders.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility between the Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) curves proposed for the Brazilian littoral and mangrove dynamics along a fluvial valley in the state of southern Bahia. This was done integrating geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and stable isotopic data from two cores collected at the mouth of the Jucuruçu River and at a site 23 km inland, near the city of Prado, northeastern Brazil. Core PR07, sampled from a fluvial plain at about 4.5±1 m above the RSL, reveals mangrove pollen (5–20%) and estuarine/terrestrial organic matter (δ13C=~–25‰, C/N=7.3–67) between 4.5 m (~7400 cal yr BP) and 1.75 m depth (~5350 cal yr BP). Core PR11, sampled from a mangrove tidal flat, also revealed mangrove pollen taxa (5-28%) since 660 cal yr BP. Core PR07 indicated absence of mangrove pollen and increase of sedimentary organic matter sourced from terrestrial C3 plants (δ13C=~–27‰, C/N=22–159) during the last 5350 cal yr BP. Probably, the changes in vegetation and sedimentary organic matter identified in core PR07 were caused by the combined effects of the RSL fluctuations, with a highstand at about 5350 cal yr BP of 2.7±1.35 m, and changes in fluvial discharge.
Assessing energy requirements is a fundamental activity in clinical dietetic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate which resting energy expenditure (REE) predictive equations are the best alternatives to indirect calorimetry before and after an interdisciplinary therapy in Brazilian obese women. In all, twelve equations based on weight, height, sex, age, fat-free mass and fat mass were tested. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. The interdisciplinary therapy consisted of nutritional, physical exercise, psychological and physiotherapy support during the course of 1 year. The average differences between measured and predicted REE, as well as the accuracy at the ±10 % level, were evaluated. Statistical analysis included paired t tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots. Validation was based on forty obese women (BMI 30–39·9 kg/m2). Our major findings demonstrated a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid, obese women. The equations reported by Harris–Benedict and FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) were the only ones that did not show significant differences compared with indirect calorimetry and presented a bias <5 %. The Harris–Benedict equation provided 40 and 47·5 % accurate predictions before and after therapy, respectively. The FAO equation provided 35 and 47·5 % accurate predictions. However, the Bland–Altman analysis did not show good agreement between these equations and indirect calorimetry. Therefore, the Harris–Benedict and FAO/WHO/UNU equations should be used with caution for obese women. The need to critically re-assess REE data and generate regional and more homogeneous REE databases for the target population is reinforced.
When high strength and high ductility are required, the Twinning Induced Plasticity steels are an excellent choice. Their mechanical advantages are perfectly known in the automotive industry. Then, they are currently deeply studied. During the deformation at high temperature, TWIP steel experiences dynamic recrystallization. This mechanism results from dislocation interactions, and it depends of temperature, stress, strain, and strain rate. Experimental data give the maximum stress reached by the material, but the critical stress which determinates the DRX onset must be calculated from the strain hardening rate. Both stress and strain change simultaneously, and this variation gives the analytic data to determine σc, which is located at the inflection point of θ-σ plot. The main purpose of this paper was to study how the chemical composition and the experimental parameters (temperature and strain rate) affect the DRX, by the calculation and analysis of the σc values. Hot compression tests were applied to a pair of TWIP steels to compare the DRX onset and its relationship with the vanadium addition. The experimental variables were temperature and strain rate. The true stress–true strain plots were used to calculate σc by cutting data up to a previous point before the σp value, then, a polynomial fit and derivation were applied. The Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) versus the stresses (peak and critical) plots show how the micro-alloying element vanadium improves the strain hardening in the analyzed TWIP steels.
This study aimed to assess the effect of satisfaction with food-related life on life satisfaction among inhabitants of the main municipalities of central Chile. A survey was applied to a sample of 1,277 people, distributed proportionally by municipality. The questionnaire included the following scales: SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the Health-Related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL). Questions were asked regarding eating habits inside and outside the home, time available for meals at home, the assessment of five sources of happiness and the demographic characteristics of those surveyed. An ordered logit model was proposed, in which the dependent variable was satisfaction with life. Satisfaction with life was significantly related to the respondent’s socioeconomic status, self-perception of health, degree of satisfaction with food-related life, monthly food expenditure, time available for supper with the family (p < .01); gender, self-reported number of days affected by mental health problems, frequency of supper with the family, the degree of agreement with respect to family being an important source of happiness (p < .05); and family size and frequency of food consumption in fast food outlets (p < .10). Satisfaction with life in the study sample is related to aspects associated with health, family and eating, and the family interaction associated with eating may play an important role in overall satisfaction with life.
Introduction. The jabuticaba tree (Myrciaria
jabuticaba) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and produces a small fruit, native
to central, southern and southeastern Brazil. Materials and methods. Fruits
of 25 progenies of the jabuticaba tree, grown in a tropical highland climate, were
evaluated as to physical, physicochemical and chemical characteristics: weight,
longitudinal and transverse diameters, pulp and peel yields, seed mass, number of seeds
per fruit, pulp and peel moisture, soluble solids, titratable acidity, [soluble
solids/titratable acidity] ratio, pH, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. The experimental
design was completely randomized, the treatments being the 25 jabuticaba tree progenies.
Results. A significant effect among progenies was observed for all
characteristics evaluated. The chemical composition showed that the jabuticaba peel has a
high phenolic compound content, and considerable flavonoid content. These results indicate
that there is variability for the characteristics analyzed, enabling the economic
exploitation of jabuticaba tree fruits for in natura consumption and
processing. Conclusions. The physical and chemical characteristics combined
can be proposed as excellent tools to select superior progenies. The fruits of five
progenies showed desirable characteristics for the in natura market,
while fruits of five other progenies hold high concentrations of natural antioxidants and
may be listed as excellent options for the food industry.
Previous community surveys of the drop out from mental health treatment have been carried out only in the USA and Canada.
To explore mental health treatment drop out in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Representative face-to-face household surveys were conducted among adults in 24 countries. People who reported mental health treatment in the 12 months before interview (n = 8482) were asked about drop out, defined as stopping treatment before the provider wanted.
Overall, drop out was 31.7%: 26.3% in high-income countries, 45.1% in upper-middle-income countries, and 37.6% in low/ lower/middle-income countries. Drop out from psychiatrists was 21.3% overall and similar across country income groups (high 20.3%, upper-middle 23.6%, low/lower-middle 23.8%) but the pattern of drop out across other sectors differed by country income group. Drop out was more likely early in treatment, particularly after the second visit.
Drop out needs to be reduced to ensure effective treatment.
The nanoencapsulation in biocompatible inorganic materials with human cell activity is a leading technology to control the process of releasing the drug in the right place. At present, the sol-gel process has emerged as a promising platform for the immobilization, stabilization and encapsulation of biological molecules such as enzymes, antibodies, microorganisms, and a variety of drugs. The matrices obtained are chemically inert, hydrophilic and easy synthesis. They have high mechanical strength, thermal stability in wide temperature ranges and absorb organic solvents so insignificant compared with other organic polymers. They are resistant to microbial attack and exhibit high biocompatibility with the body, as provided for implantation in situ in the treatment of various diseases. An additional advantage is that it provides viability encapsulated molecules, since these matrices act as reservoirs of water thus helping to maintain the biological activity of enzymes, antibodies, cells, and drugs for the moisture level required for the molecule. We used the action of the active ingredients of tepezcohuite (condensed tannins) to assess the capacity aseptic surgical wound healing than 1 cm in diameter in New Zealand white rabbits. Experimentally and statistically demonstrating the effectiveness of healing nanoreservoirs Tan/TiO2-150 the weight of tannins by 60% compared to condensed tannins as such, TiO2and isotonic saline.