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The functional assessment of cancer therapy-bone marrow transplant (FACT-BMT) is a widely used instrument to assess quality of life (QOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, but there is little evidence of its validity in Latin American populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version of the FACT-BMT in Mexican patients.
First, the original version was piloted with 15 HSCT patients to obtain an adequate cultural version, resulting in the adaptation of one item. After that, the new version was completed by 139 HSCT patients.
The results showed a FACT factor structure that explains 70.84% of the total variance, a factor structure similar to the original FACT structure, and with a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.867). For the BMT subscale, the best factor structure included 17 items which explain 61.65% of the total variance with an adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.696).
Significance of the results
The FACT-BMT was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate QOL in Mexican patients. Our results constitute new FACT-BMT empirical evidence that supports its clinical and research uses.
The drainage area of the Iberian Ranges (NE Spain) houses one of the most extensive Quaternary fluvial tufaceous records in Europe. In this study, tufa deposits in the Añamaza, Mesa, Piedra and Ebrón river valleys were mapped, stratigraphically described and chronologically referenced from U/Th disequilibrium series, amino acid racemization and radiocarbon methods. Tufa deposits accumulated in cascades, barrage-cascades and related damming areas developed in stepped fluvial systems. The maximum frequency of tufa deposition was identified at 120 ka (Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage [MIS] 5e), 102 ka (MIS 5c), 85 ka (~ MIS 5a) and 7 ka (MIS 1), probably under warmer and wetter conditions than today. Additional phases of tufa deposition appear at ~ 353 ka (~ end of MIS 11), 258–180 ka (MIS 7) and 171–154 ka (MIS 6). Although most tufa deposition episodes are clearly correlated with interstadial periods, the occurrence of tufa deposits during the penultimate glaciation (MIS 6) is remarkable, indicating that the onset of this stage was climatically favourable in the Iberian Peninsula. Biostatic conditions and the dynamics of karstic systems regulating tufa deposition seem to be sensitive to the precipitation regime, controlled by shifts in the position of North Atlantic atmospheric belts, and summer insolation, regulated by orbital forcing.
It has been suggested that the presence of disks or tori around the central stars of pre Planetary Nebulae and Planetary Nebulae is related to the collimation of the jet that are frequently observed in these sources. These disks or tori can be traced by the maser emission of some molecules such as water. In this work we present Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the water maser emission at 22 GHz toward the PN IRAS 18061–2505, for which the masers appear located on one side of the central star. For comparison with the observations, we present a simple kinematical model of a disk rotating and expanding around the central star. The model matches qualitatively the observations. However, since the masers appear only on one side of the disk, these results are not conclusive.
Porous platinum thin films were prepared by thermal decomposition at temperatures from 25 to 675 °C of platinum oxide films deposited by a pulsed reactive sputtering technique. The samples’ chemistry and structure were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), showing that the decomposition of the oxide begins as low as 400 °C and follows a sigmoidal trend with increasing annealing temperature. In the XRD spectra, only an amorphous-like signature was observed for temperatures below 575 °C, while Pt 4f XPS showed that the deposited oxide was a mixture of PtO2 and PtO. Pt-L3 edge XANES and Pt 4f XPS spectra showed that the Pt concentration and electronic structure are predominant for temperatures equal to or above 575 °C. The morphologies of the films were investigated by the area-perimeter method from atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, indicating that the surfaces exhibit a combination of Euclidian and fractal characteristics. Moreover, the thermal evolution of these characteristics indicates the agglomeration of the grains in the film as observed by SEM.
The present study aimed to examine the levels and interactions of family burden (FB) and expressed emotion (EE) in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and, secondly, to observe the potential change after a brief psychoeducational group intervention implemented in a real world clinical setting. Twenty-three key relatives of FEP patients received a brief psychoeducational group intervention. FB and EE were assessed before and after the intervention. EE-change and correlations between variables were examined. Half of the sample of key-relatives showed high levels of EE. No severe family burden was observed. FB and EE did not change after the intervention. Family subjective and objective burden were correlated with emotional overinvolvement, but not with criticism. Brief psychoeducational groups may not be sufficient to reduce FB and EE associated to the experience of caregiving for a family member with a first-episode psychotic disorder.
There is a high incidence of scoliosis in patients who have undergone cardiothoracic surgery for correction of congenital cardiac disease, this risk being 10 times higher than in the general population.
Materials and methods
So as to analyse the surgical and postoperative complications, we designed a retrospective study to include every child who underwent spinal orthopaedic surgery, and who had previously undergone cardiothoracic surgery because of a congenital cardiac malformation. We excluded those patients who had syndromes associated with the development of scoliosis.
We identified 18 patients with surgically treated congenital cardiac disease who had undergone surgery for scoliosis over a period of 7 years. This group came from a total number of 87 patients undergoing spinal fusion over the same period. Of those with congenitally malformed hearts, 61% had acyanotic lesions, with ventricular septal defect being the most frequent single lesion, present in 40%. All the patients needed blood transfusions during the surgery, with aprotinin used in 73% to reduce the bleeding, and inotropes needed for 4 children. During the immediate postoperative period, 1 patient died in the first 24 hours, while 7 (39%) had different complications, pneumonia in 4, pleural effusions in 2, and rhabdomyolysis in the other, as opposed to a rate of complications of 27% in patients without heart disease.
The surgical and postoperative complications in these patients depend on the specific cardiac lesion. A multidisciplinary team with experience in the treatment of congenitally malformed hearts is essential for appropriate management of these patients.
Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.
Speed of processing is a cognitive process underlying cognitive
dysfunction in people with chronic schizophrenia
To investigate the contribution of speed of processing to the cognitive
deficits observed in a representative large sample with first-episode
People with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders
(n=26) and healthy controls (n=28)
were compared on several cognitive measures before and after controlling
for speed of processing
Before controlling for speed of processing, patients and controls
differed significantly on all cognitive measures. All significant
differences in cognitive functioning disappeared when the result of the
Digital Symbol Substitution Test was included as an additional
Speed of information processing may be considered a core cognitive
deficit in schizophrenia and might be mediating a broader diversity of
Se llega a veces a concebir la ilusión de que ciertas gentes de nuestro entorno, las más allegadas, se verán libres del ineludible término natural de la vida. Tras más de treinta años de convivencia casi cotidiana con don Felipe –siempre le llamábamos así–, su persona y magisterio acabaron por formar parte de nuestro paisaje más familiar, y hoy nos es doloroso reconocer que nos engañábamos al alimentar tamaña ilusión. No así él. Don Felipe no se dejó confundir, fue muy consciente de las previsibles consecuencias de su enfermedad, y lo declaraba sin ambages y sin dejarse embaucar por cuantos porfiábamos en inducirle ánimos con disimulos piadosos. Falleció en Madrid el pasado 27 de Enero y fue enterrado el día 29 en Palacios de Campos, provincia de Valladolid, donde naciera hace 88 años.
This is the first report on the epidemiology of depressive disorders from the European Outcome of Depression International Network (ODIN) study.
To assess the prevalence of depressive disorders in randomly selected samples of the general population in five European countries.
The study was designed as a cross-sectional two-phase community study using the Beck Depression Inventory during Phase 1, and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry during Phase 2.
An analysis of the combined sample (n=8.764) gave an overall prevalence of depressive disorders of 8.56% (95% Cl 7.05–10.37). The figures were 10.05% (95% Cl 7.80–12.85) for women and 6.61% (95% Cl 4.92–8.83) for men. The centres fall into three categories: high prevalence (urban Ireland and urban UK), low prevalence (urban Spain) and medium prevalence (the remaining sites).
Depressive disorder is a highly prevalent condition in Europe. The major finding is the wide difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders found across the study sites.
Abnormal regulation of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin could play a role in body weight gain induced by antipsychotics.
To study the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on leptin levels in patients with schizophrenia.
Serum leptin levels were determined in 59 out-patients with chronic schizophrenia and in the same number of healthy subjects controlled by gender, age and body mass index.
Leptin levels did not differ between patients and controls. Leptin levels in patients with schizophrenia correlated with weight gain, even after controlling for current weight, but did not show any association with clinical variables. Antipsychotic class tended to exert different effects over leptin levels (among atypicals, olanzapine induced a greater increase).
Elevation of leptin levels induced by chronic antipsychotic treatment can be attributed to weight gain, but other mechanisms could be involved.
This paper, part of the European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs (EPSILON) Study, reports the development, reliability and internal consistency of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile – European Version (LQoLP–EU) in a representative sample of people with schizophrenia from five European sites.
The LQoLP–EU was administered to a total sample of 404 patients to check its internal consistency, and a sub-sample of 294 patients was interviewed a second time within 7–15 days to verify its test–retest reliability.
Internal consistency of the total domains, perceived QoL scale (Life Satisfaction Scale, LSS) was good at 0.87. Of the nine subjective QoL domains Work and Leisure showed the lowest internal consistency (0.30 and 0.56 respectively), the values of the remaining sub-scales ranging between 0.62 and 0.88. The pooled ICC score for LSS was 0.82, and for the nine subjective QoL domain sub-scales it ranged from 0.61 (Safety) to 0.75 (Living Situation). There were significant differences between the sites in α and ICCs for sub-scales, but not for the LSS.
The LQoLP-EU has good internal consistency and reliability in the five European centres.
Research on the comparison of mental health services has identified the need for internationally standardised and reliable measurements.
To describe the strategies adopted in the European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs (EPSILON) Study for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of five European versions of the instruments.
A protocol was developed for translation of the outcome scales, describing each step in the translation procedure. Disputed items were discussed in focus groups, which faced seven tasks: a list of topics to be discussed; choosing where the group should meet; composition of participants; conducting the group; data collection; data completion afterwards; reporting results.
Modifications made to instruments were: changes in the instrument structure, contents and concepts; adjustments to the instrument structure; and modifications to the instrument manual.
Use of focus groups is an adequate method to apply if concepts, constructs and translation issues are to be addressed; otherwise, less time-consuming methods should be considered.
In international research on the consequences of psychiatric illnesses for relatives of patients, the need for an internationally standardised measure has been identified.
To test the internal consistency and the test-retest reliability of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) in five European countries.
The IEQ was administered twice to a sample of relatives or friends of patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's α, intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement. Reliability estimates were tested between sites.
Test sample sizes ranged from 30 to 90 across sites, and retest sample sizes ranged from 21 to 77. Cronbach's α values of IEQ sub-scales and sumscore were substantial at most sites; but at two, α values were moderate. Intraclass correlation coefficients were substantial to high at all sites. The standard errors of measurement differed across sites, indicating differences in performance.
The reliability of the IEQ in five languages varies across sites, but is sufficiently high in at least four out of five.