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This work aimed to evaluate the effects of whey protein concentrate admixtured of curcumin on metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress in Wistar rats submitted to exhaustive exercise. A total of 48 male rats were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 8): standard diet group (AIN-93M); standard diet submitted to exhaustion test group (AIN-93M ET); whey protein concentrate admixtured of curcumin group (WPC + CCM); WPC + CCM submitted to exhaustion test group (WPC + CCM ET); CCM group, and CCM subjected to exhaustion test group (CCM ET). The swimming exhaustion test was performed after 4 weeks of experiment. The consumption of WPC + CCM as well as isolated CCM did not alter the biometric measurements, the animals’ food consumption and the hepatic and kidney function, as well as the protein balance of the animals (p>0.05), but reduced the glycemia and the gene expression of TNF- α and IL-6, and increased the expression of IL-10 (p<0.05). The animals that were submitted to the exhaustion test (AIN-93M ET) showed higher AST values when compared to the animals that did not perform the exercise (AIN-93 M) (p<0.05). WPC + CCM reduced the concentration of nitric oxide, carbonylated protein and increased the concentration of catalase (p<0.05). Both (WPC + CCM and CCM) were able to increase the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (p<0.05). We concluded that the WPC admixtured of CCM represents a strategy capable of decreasing blood glucose and oxidative and inflammatory damage caused by exhaustive physical exercise in swimming.
The increasing pressure of anthropogenic development in areas with high natural value poses a huge challenge for wildlife conservation worldwide. The Tagus estuary in southern Portugal is among the most important wetlands for migratory shorebirds in the East Atlantic Flyway (EAF). However, in 2020 the Portuguese government approved the construction of the new Lisbon international airport at the heart of the Tagus estuary. Intense aircraft traffic, flying at low altitudes during both approach and take-off, is expected to cross the estuary, overlapping to a great extent the important intertidal foraging areas. Here, we aim to quantify the potential loss of conservation value of the intertidal areas of the Tagus estuary for shorebirds resulting from the disturbance (noise) caused by overflying aircraft. Using a comprehensive dataset of wintering shorebird abundance and distribution in the whole intertidal estuarine area we first identified priority areas for conservation using a spatial prioritization approach. We then performed a replacement cost analysis by excluding the areas likely to become unsuitable or severely underused by birds due to intense air traffic noise. Our results suggest that the implementation of the new Lisbon airport may lead to a loss of up to 30% of the conservation value of the Tagus estuary in terms of intertidal feeding areas of wintering birds alone. The global impact will likely be greater when effects on supratidal roosts, as well as on passage birds, are also considered. The Tagus estuary, which is internationally important for six of the 10 species included in our analysis, is just one of a network of already depleted sites along the EAF. Thus, negative impacts on bird populations on the Tagus estuary will have repercussions and undermine conservation efforts elsewhere. The plight of shorebirds at the Tagus estuary is thus a matter of international conservation concern.
Garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande] is a biennial invasive plant commonly found in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Although it is not recommended to apply herbicides after flowering, land managers frequently desire to conduct management during this timing. We applied glyphosate and triclopyr (3% v/v and 1% v/v using 31.8% and 39.8% acid equivalent formulations, respectively) POST to established, second-year A. petiolata populations at three locations when petals were dehiscing and evaluated control, seed production, and seed viability. POST glyphosate applications at this timing provided 100% control of A. petiolata by 4 wk after treatment at all locations, whereas triclopyr efficacy was variable, providing 38% to 62% control. Seed production was only reduced at one location, with similar results regardless of treatment. Percent seed viability was also reduced, and when combined with reductions in seed production, resulted in a 71% to 99% reduction in number of viable seeds produced per plant regardless of treatment. While applications did not eliminate viable seed production, our findings indicate that glyphosate and triclopyr applied while petals are dehiscing is a viable alternative to cutting or hand pulling at this timing, as it substantially decreased viable A. petiolata seed production.
Establishment of alfalfa by interseeding it with corn planted for silage can enhance crop productivity but weed management is a challenge to adoption of the practice. Although a simple and effective approach to weed management would be to apply a glyphosate-based herbicide, concerns about herbicide resistance and limitations in available alfalfa varieties exist. Field experiments were conducted to compare the efficacy and selectivity of PRE, POST, and PRE followed by POST herbicide programs to a glyphosate-only strategy when interseeding alfalfa with corn. Experiment 1 compared PRE applications of acetochlor, mesotrione, S-metalochlor, metribuzin, and flumetsulam. Results indicate that acetochlor and metribuzin, and S-metalochlor used at a rate of 1.1 kg ai ha−1 were the most effective and selective PRE herbicides 4 wk after treatment (WAT), but each resulted in greater overall weed cover than glyphosate by 8 WAT. Experiment 2 evaluated applications of bentazon, bromoxynil, 2,4-DB, and mesotrione at early and late POST times. Several herbicides used POST exhibited similar effectiveness and selectivity as glyphosate, including early applications of bromoxynil (0.14 kg ai ha−1) and 2,4-DB (0.84 or 1.68 kg ai ha−1), as well as late applications of bromoxynil (0.42 kg ai ha−1), 2,4-DB (0.84 kg ai ha−1), and mesotrione (0.05 or 0.11 kg ai ha−1). A third experiment compared applications of acetochlor PRE, bromoxynil POST, and a combination of acetochlor PRE with bromoxynil POST. All treatments were effective and safe for use in this interseeded system, although interseeded alfalfa provided 65% to 70% weed suppression in corn planted for silage without any herbicide. Herbicide treatments had no observable impacts on corn and alfalfa yields, so weed management was likely of limited economic importance. However, weed competitiveness can vary based on several different factors including weed species, density, and site-specific factors, and so further investigations under different environments and conditions are needed.
Pintoi peanut is a warm-season perennial legume that shows promise as a forage crop for the southeastern United States, however, little is known about the proper methods of weed management during establishment for this species. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of pintoi peanut to tolerate applications of PRE and POST herbicides during the year of and year after planting. The effects of herbicide treatments on percentage of visual estimates of injury and stand counts of pintoi peanut were investigated at Ona and Marianna, FL, in 2015 and 2016. All PRE herbicides did not result in significant injury or stand reduction. Pintoi peanut’s tolerance to POST herbicides was higher when plants were emerged for at least 2 wk prior to herbicide application. Stands of pintoi peanut that were planted the previous year appear to tolerate all herbicides examined in this work, except sulfosulfuron. Results of this study indicate that at the year of planting pintoi peanut is tolerant to PRE applications of pendimethalin, imazethapyr, and imazapic. Pintoi peanut appears to tolerate applications of 2,4-D, carfentrazone, imazapic and imazethapyr the year after planting at the rates utilized in this study. Future research should evaluate the effects of multiple herbicide applications and tank-mixes to obtain satisfactory weed control and selectivity in pintoi peanut swards.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity on the kinetics of oocyte nuclear maturation and the blastocyst rate. To evaluate oocyte viability, nuclear maturation rate and in vitro embryo production, cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were maintained for 0, 10 min, 6 h or 22 h in TCM 199 medium supplemented with 20 nM wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K. After each period, COCs were transferred to the same medium without wortmannin and kept under the same conditions until completion of 22 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). To evaluate the effect of time on progression of nuclear maturation, COCs cultivated with 20 nM wortmannin was maintained for 22, 28 or 34 h of IVM. To determine the effect of wortmannin on the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), COCs were kept under IVM conditions in the presence of the inhibitor for 0, 1, 3, 6, or 8 h. Exposure of COCs to wortmannin decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of oocytes that reached metaphase II (MII) up to 22 h, MPF activity and reduced PI3K activity by 30%. However, after 28 and 34 h, 70% of oocytes reached the MII stage in the presence of inhibitor Moreover, COCs matured in the presence of wortmannin showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the blastocyst rate. These findings suggested that the regulation of the PI3K activity during IVM of bovine COCs interfered with the meiotic progression due to control of MPF activity, positively affecting the blastocyst rate.
The pyridine carboxylic acid (PCA) herbicide family can exhibit differential activity within and among plant species, despite molecular resemblances. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP), a pyrimidine carboxylic acid, is a recently discovered compound with similar use patterns to those of the PCA family; however, relative activity among PCAs and AMCP is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify relative activity among aminopyralid, picloram, clopyralid, triclopyr, and AMCP in canola, squash, and okra using dose-response whole-plant bioassays. Clopyralid was less active than all other herbicides in all species and did not fit dose-response models. Aminopyralid and picloram performed similarly in squash (ED50 = 21.1 and 23.3 g ae ha−1, respectively). Aminopyralid was 3.8 times and 1.7 times more active than picloram in canola (ED50 = 60.3 and 227.7 g ha−1, respectively) and okra (ED50 = 10.3 and 17.3 g ha−1, respectively). Triclopyr (ED50 = 37.3 g ha−1) was more active than AMCP (ED50 = 112.9 g ha−1) and picloram in canola. Aminocyclopyrachlor (ED50 = 6.6 g ha−1) and triclopyr (ED50 = 7.8 g ha−1) were more active in squash than aminopyralid and picloram. In okra, AMCP (ED50 = 14.6 g ha−1) and aminopyralid (ED50 = 10.3 g ha−1) performed similarly but were more active than triclopyr (ED50 = 88.2 g ha−1). Herbicidal activity among AMCP and PCAs was vastly different despite molecular similarities that could be due to variable target-site sensitivity among species.
The University of São Paulo Twin Panel (Painel USP de Gêmeos), based at the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, started formally in 2017. Our registry is new, but in only two years of formal existence, it comprises a volunteer sample of 4826 registered individuals (98% twins and 2% higher-order multiples), recruited at the University of São Paulo and by social media campaigns. Our main aim is to conduct and promote research with twins on psychological processes and behavior. The University of São Paulo is the largest higher education and research institution in South America, and the Painel USP de Gêmeos has great potential for fostering research on twin-related issues from a psychological perspective in Brazil and South America.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
Cadillo is an invasive species in Florida pastures and natural areas. Despite its invasiveness, relatively few studies have evaluated cadillo management. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine effective POST herbicides for cadillo control in Florida. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center near Ona, FL, in 2015 and 2016. In the greenhouse study, triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, metsulfuron, 2,4-D amine, aminopyralid+metsulfuron, aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron, and imazapyr+aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron provided ≥80% control of cadillo 28 d after treatment (DAT). Aminocyclopyrachlor at 17 and 35 g ha–1 were the only treatments with <80% control, with 70% and 75% control, respectively. Similar results were reflected in cadillo dry biomass reduction. The herbicide treatments used in the field study were triclopyr-ester, aminopyralid, 2,4-D amine, aminocyclopyrachlor, and triclopyr+fluroxypyr. Most treatments provided excellent control in the field (≥90% control) 30 DAT, and by 60 DAT all treatments provided 100% control. Results from these studies suggest that cadillo is susceptible to many of the common POST herbicides utilized in pastures and natural areas in Florida.
Phenological models for predicting the grapevine flowering were tested using phenological data of 15 grape varieties collected between 1990 and 2014 in Vinhos Verdes and Lisbon Portuguese wine regions. Three models were tested: Spring Warming (Growing Degree Days – GDD model), Spring Warming modified using a triangular function – GDD triangular and UniFORC model, which considers an exponential response curve to temperature. Model estimation was performed using data on two grape varieties (Loureiro and Fernão Pires), present in both regions. Three dates were tested for the beginning of heat unit accumulation (t0 date): budburst, 1 January and 1 September. The best overall date was budburst. Furthermore, for each model parameter, an intermediate range of values common for the studied regions was estimated and further optimized to obtain one model that could be used for a diverse range of grape varieties in both wine regions. External validation was performed using an independent data set from 13 grape varieties (seven red and six white), different from the two used in the estimation step. The results showed a high coefficient of determination (R2: 0.59–0.89), low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE: 3–7 days) and Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD: 2–6 days) between predicted and observed values. The UniFORC model overall performed slightly better than the two GDD models, presenting higher R2 (0.75) and lower RMSE (4.55) and MAD (3.60). The developed phenological models presented good accuracy when applied to several varieties in different regions and can be used as a predictor tool of flowering date in Portugal.
This study assessed the anthelmintic activity of plant-derived compounds against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats using the egg hatch and larval motility assays. The compounds tested were saponins (digitonin and aescin) and their respective sapogenins (aglycones), hecogenin acetate and flavonoids (catechin, hesperidin, isocordoin and a mixture of isocordoin and cordoin). Additionally, cytotoxicity of active substances was analysed on Vero cell through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl,2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) tests. Significant reduction on the egg hatching (P < 0.05) was seen only in the treatments with aescin (99%/EC50 = 0.67 mg mL−1) and digitonin (45%). The compounds that reduced the larval motility (P < 0.05) were digitonin (EC50 = 0.03 mg mL−1 and EC90 = 0.49 mg mL−1) and the hecogenin acetate (75%). The other sapogenins showed low anthelmintic activity. All the flavonoids showed low ovicidal (4–12%) and larvicidal (10–19%) effects. The aescin and digitonin showed low toxicity in PI test (viable cells >90%). Nevertheless, higher cytotoxicity was observed in the MTT assay, with IC50 of 0.20 mg mL−1 (aescin) and 0.0074 mg mL−1 (digitonin). Aescin and digitonin have a pronounced in vitro anthelmintic effect and the glycone portion of these saponins plays an important role in this activity.
Triclopyr is a synthetic auxin herbicide currently available as a triethylamine salt, butoxyethyl ester, pyridinyloxyacetic acid, or choline salt. The formulation of a herbicide has the potential to impact its activity; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of these four triclopyr formulations. Greenhouse dose–response studies were conducted twice at the University of Florida in 2015. The four formulations were foliar applied at rates ranging from 17 to 1,121 g ae ha−1 to 2- to 3-leaf soybean, sunflower, tomato, and cotton. The amine salt formulation provided the lowest ED50 values in tomato and sunflower (22.87 and 60.39 g ha−1, respectively); whereas in soybean, amine and choline formulations provided the lowest ED50 values (22.56 and 20.95 g ha−1, respectively). No differences between formulations were observed in cotton. These data suggest that (1) the amine salt formulation of triclopyr might be more active than the others on tomato and sunflower, and (2) the amine and choline salt formulations might be more active than the others on soybean. Further work must be conducted to determine whether there are differences among these formulations under a range of field conditions and target species. In addition, other important management factors such as applicator safety, volatility potential, and cost should be considered when choosing the best formulated product to be applied.
The present study aimed to identify food patterns among 2–9-year-olds and investigate sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural predictors of less healthy dietary patterns.
Cross-sectional study. Parents of 2–9-year-olds completed an FFQ and factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural characteristics of parents and children, including parental feeding practices.
Participants were recruited from private schools of Campinas and São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between April and June 2014.
Parents of 2–9-year-olds (n 929).
Two dietary patterns emerged: ‘traditional food’ and ‘ultra-processed food’. Lower maternal education (OR=2·05, P=0·010) and higher maternal weight status (OR=1·43, P=0·044) were associated with a greater likelihood of the ultra-processed food pattern. Lower perceived parental responsibility for adequacy of food group intake (OR=2·41, P=0·020), and lower scores on the parental feeding practices of ‘Healthy Eating Guidance’ (OR=1·83, P<0·001) and ‘Monitoring’ (OR=2·52, P<0·001), were also associated with the presence of this pattern, as was higher child’s screen use during mealtimes (OR=1·61, P=0·004).
The present study is the first to evaluate associations between less healthy dietary patterns of Brazilian 2–9-year-olds and parental feeding practices. Our findings highlight sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors within families that could be used to target tailored policies to at-risk populations.
Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the tolerance of limpograss to increasing rates of hexazinone. Dose-response curves were generated using linear and quadratic regression models to determine the hexazinone estimated dose (ED) required to provide 10% (ED10) and 20% (ED20) of visual injury and herbage mass reduction. The ED10 and ED20 for visual estimates of injury were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.14 kg ai ha-1 at 60 d after treatment (DAT). Regarding forage herbage mass reduction, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.07 and 0.19 kg ai ha-1 in 2013, whereas in 2014, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.03 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1, respectively. The significant difference in herbage mass reduction between 2013 and 2014 was likely due to rainfall patterns, which possibly promoted hexazinone leaching in 2013 and consequently, less activity. Overall, hexazinone resulted in high degrees of limpograss injury across all response variables in both years; therefore, smutgrass control in limpograss pastures with hexazinone may not be a viable option. The presence or absence of smutgrass should be considered before limpograss establishment as there is no viable herbicide to selectively remove smutgrass from limpograss swards.
Two separate experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Citra, FL to investigate the effects of preplant application timing of 2,4-D and dicamba on sesame stand and yield. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the application timing that caused 10% stand or yield reduction (GR10) compared to the nontreated control (NTC) and expressed as d before planting (DBP; longer intervals indicate more injury). Likewise, regression analysis was used to determine sesame stand that resulted in 10% yield reduction (YR10) expressed as plants m−1 row. Stand measured 3 wk after planting (WAP) revealed 2,4-D applied at 0.53 kg ae ha−1 to be the least injurious treatment to sesame stand (GR10=6.4 DBP). Conversely, dicamba at 1.12 kg ha−1 produced a GR10 of 15.7 DBP for sesame stand at 3 WAP. 2,4-D applied at 0.53 and 1.06 kg ha−1 and dicamba applied at 0.56 kg ha−1 had the lowest GR10 for yield of 2, 3.7, and 3 DBP, respectively. Dicamba applied at 1.12 kg ha−1 proved to be the most injurious treatment to yield, which produced a GR10 value of 10.3 DBP. To simulate possible stand losses associated with dicamba or 2,4-D and the subsequent effect on yield, a separate experiment was conducted in which sesame was thinned to various plant densities and yield was recorded to determine the relationship between plant stand and seed yield. The regression analysis of these data was then compared to that of the experiment treated with 2,4-D and dicamba to separate any physiological effects of the herbicides that would lead to yield reduction from yield effects due to stand loss only. Rate constants were compared and no statistical differences were detected between herbicide and non-herbicide treatments, suggesting that yield reductions that occur from preplant applications of 2,4-D and dicamba were purely due to stand reductions.
Lithotripsy methods show relatively low efficiency in the fragmentation of sialoliths compared with the success rates achieved in the destruction of renal calculi. However, the information available on the mechanical behavior of sialoliths is limited and their apparently tougher response is not fully understood. This work evaluates the hardness and Young’s modulus of sialoliths at different scales and analyzes specific damage patterns induced in these calcified structures by ultrasonic vibrations, pneumoballistic impacts, shock waves, and laser ablation. A clear correlation between local mechanical properties and ultrastructure/chemistry has been established: sialoliths are composite materials consisting of hard and soft components of mineralized and organic nature, respectively. Ultrasonic and pneumoballistic reverberations damage preferentially highly mineralized regions, leaving relatively unaffected the surrounding organic matter. In contrast, shock waves leach the organic component and lead to erosion of the overall structure. Laser ablation destroys homogeneously the irradiated zones regardless of the mineralized/organic nature of the underlying ultrastructure; however, damage is less extensive than with mechanical methods. Overall, the present results show that composition and internal structure are key features behind sialoliths’ comminution behavior and that the organic matter contributes to reduce the therapeutic efficiency of lithotripsy methods.
We study polygonal billiards with reflection laws contracting the angle of reflection towards the normal. It is shown that if a polygon does not have parallel sides facing each other, then the corresponding billiard map has finitely many ergodic Sinai–Ruelle–Bowen measures whose basins cover a set of full Lebesgue measure.
Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.