To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
North African knapweed (Centaurea diluta Aiton) is an annual weed that is widespread in southern Spain and is of increasing concern in dryland cropping systems. Despite its expanding range in Spain, there is limited information on the emergence timing and pattern of this species, which is critical for developing more timely and effective management strategies. Therefore, there is a need to develop simple and reliable models to predict the timing and emergence of this annual weed under dryland conditions. A multi-location field experiment was established across Spain in 2016-2017 to assess the emergence of C. diluta. At each of 11 locations, seeds were sown in the fall, and emergence was recorded. Overall emergence averaged 39% in the first year across all sites and 11% in the second year. In both years, the main emergence flush occurred at beginning of the growing season. The three-parameter Weibull function best described seedling emergence of C. diluta. Emergence models were developed based on thermal time (TT) and hydrothermal time (HTT) and showed high predictability, as evidenced by root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) values of 10.8 and 10.7, respectively. The three cardinal points were established for TT and HHT at 0.5 ºC, 10 ºC and 35 ºC for base, optimal and ceiling temperature, while base water potential was estimated at -0.5MPa.
This article argues that efforts to implement collective property ownership via community land trusts (CLTs) in Latin America can be seen as a viable means for reducing socio-spatial inequalities, strengthening the urban poor’s ‘right to the city,’ and enabling more substantive social citizenship. It begins by arguing that, in Latin America, market models intended to strengthen individual property rights can increase urban inequality and spatial exclusion. It then examines recent measures undertaken to reverse the negative impacts of these patterns, focusing explicitly on the adoption of CLTs and how they serve as a means for strengthening urban citizenship. After highlighting the fact that CLTs have proliferated in the US and Europe but not Latin America, we explain how and why a few Latin American countries have nonetheless embraced CLTs. Building on deeper analysis of two cases in the region, Puerto Rico and Brazil, we show that despite the legal and governance constraints of Latin American cities, CLTs can materialise when local authorities join with citizens to embrace these models.
Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae) is a key species to test evolutionary hypotheses in a global warming context. The recent advances in Next Generation Sequencing technologies can help in providing clues about climate-mediated local adaptation. In the present study, we analysed the full transcriptome of six individuals of S. ciliata from Central Spain, by aligning it with the transcriptome of S. latifolia. We aimed (a) to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptome of the species, (b) to describe the biological function of the polymorphic genes expressed and (c) to identify loci that may be involved in local adaptation processes at optimal and marginal populations of the species. We identified a total of 147,118 SNPs distributed throughout 12,688 sequences. The number of polymorphic sequences annotated was 8023. One hundred thirty sequences containing polymorphisms strongly associated with optimal and marginal conditions were selected. Gene ontology searches were successful for 118, and many of these were related to responses to stress (n = 19) and abiotic stimulus (n = 16). Genomic data generated provide a starting point for further research on the identification of candidate genes related to local adaptation and other processes in the species.
A method for the fabrication of interconnected ceramic sponges was used in the present work, designed by using a combination of two different, aqueous gel casting and sacrificial template, using aluminum nitride powder (99.97%) with a mean size of 2.4 micrometers. Two types of sponges were made by using two different monomers, acrylamide and methacrylamide, the resultants sponges have 60% of porosity after being sintered and pyrolyzed at temperature of 1673 K using an inert atmosphere of argon for 1 h. The hydrolysis evolution of this ceramic powder during the gelcasting process was studied by measuring the pH during the stirring time, the microstructure changes during the time of exposure were observed in a SEM. XRD were made to study the present phases after the gel was eliminated by thermal treatment at 873 K using an oxidizing atmosphere, observing a formation of up to 4 %wt. of cubic alumina phase which was made after the hydrolysis products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the changes in the ceramic powder.
A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population.
A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL–90–R Symptoms Inventory.
There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI–HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15–30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it.
Significance of results:
A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.
Since work organizations became the subject of scientific research, how to operationalize and measure dimensions of work design has been an issue, mainly due to concerns about internal consistency and factor structure. In response, Morgeson and Humphrey (2006) built the Work Design Questionnaire –WDQ–, an instrument that identifies and measures these dimensions in different work and organizational contexts. This paper presents the instruent’s adaptation into Spanish using reliability and validity analysis and drawing on a sample of 1035 Spanish workers who hold various jobs in an array of occupational categories. The total instrument’s internal consistency was Cronbach’s alpha of .92 and the various scales’ reliability ranged from .70 to .96, except for three dimensions. There was initially a difference in the comparative fit of the two versions’ factor structures, but the model with 21 work characteristics (motivational -task and knowledge-, social, and work context) showed the highest goodness of fit of the various models tested, confirming previous results from the U.S. version as well as adaptations into other languages and contexts. CFA results indicated goodness of fit of factor configurations corresponding to each of the four major categories of work characteristics, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as SRMR and RMSEA below .08. Thus it brings to the table a reliable, valid measure of work design with clear potential applications in research as well as professional practice, applications that could improve working conditions, boost productivity, and generate more personal and professional development opportunities for workers.
In this article we evaluate ∼48km2 of airborne lidar data collected at a target density of 15 laser shots/m in central Yucatán, Mexico. This area covers parts of the sites of Chichén Itzá and Yaxuná, a kilometer-wide transect between these two sites, and a transect along the first few kilometers of Sacbé 1 from Yaxuná to Cobá. The results of our ground validation and mapping demonstrate that not all sizable archaeological features can be detected in the lidar images due to: (1) the slightly rolling topography interspersed with 1-6 m-high bedrock hummocks, which morphologically mimic house mounds, further complicated by the presence of low foundations; (2) the complex forest structure in central Yucatán, which has particularly dense near-ground understory resulting in a high number of mixed-signal ground and low vegetation returns which reduces the fidelity and accuracy of the bare-earth digital elevation models; and (3) the predominance of low archaeological features difficult to discern from the textural noise of the near-ground vegetation. In this article we explore different visualization techniques to increase the identification of cultural features, but we conclude that, in this portion of the Maya region, lidar should be used as a complement to traditional on-the-ground survey techniques.
The purpose of this study was to analyze psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Attitudinal Beliefs Questionnaire about Suicidal Behavior CCCS-18 (Ruiz, Navarro-Ruiz, Torrente, & Rodríguez, 2005). The participants were 277 subjects, 81.2% (225) women and 18.8% (52) men. The average age was 39.95 years old (SD = 15.9). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the adequacy of the four-factor model proposed by the authors. As a result it was obtained a three-factor model (χ2/df = 1.96; CFI = .98; sRMR = .060; RMSEA = .059), with indices reflecting adequate goodness of fit. The reliability of the test using the omega coefficient showed satisfactory values (ωh = .95, CI 95% = [.94, .96]). The results indicate a close relation between the CCCS-18 dimensions and the suicidal tendency, showing discriminant validity properties. Predictive validity was also found in the significant correlations between the measures obtained in the questionnaire and a risk index resulting from the suicidal ideation predictor variables that were part of a logistic regression equation; CCCS-18 (r = .26, p < .001), F1, Legimization and terminal disease (r = .163, p < .01), F2, Moral dimension (r = .22, p < .001) and F3, Suicide itself (r = .252, p < .001). Conclusions: The CCCS-18 shows reliability and validity, as well as being a test of easy and brief application.
The study of the Bom Santo Cave (central Portugal), a Neolithic cemetery, indicates a complex social, palaeoeconomic, and population scenario. With isotope, aDNA, and provenance analyses of raw materials coupled with stylistic variability of material culture items and palaeogeographical data, light is shed on the territory and social organization of a population dated to 3800–3400 cal BC, i.e. the Middle Neolithic. Results indicate an itinerant farming, segmentary society, where exogamic practices were the norm. Its lifeway may be that of the earliest megalithic builders of the region, but further research is needed to correctly evaluate the degree of this community's participation in such a phenomenon.
We present a set of Molecular Dynamics simulations of the axial elongation of gold nanowires, and the compression of silver decahedral nanowires by a carbon AFM tip. We used Sutton and Chen multibody potentials to describe the metallic interactions, a Tersoff potential to simulate the carbon-carbon interactions, and a 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential to describe the metal-carbon interactions. In the elongation simulations, gold nanowires were subjected to strain at several rates, and we concentrated our attention in the specific case of a wire with an atomistic arrangement based on the intercalation of icosahedral motifs forming a Boerdijk-Coxeter (BCB) spiral, and compare it against results of nanowires with fcc structure and (001), (011), and (111) orientations. We found that the BCB nanowire is more resistant to breakage than the fcc nanowires. In the simulations of lateral compression, we made a strain analysis of the trajectories, finding that when a gold decahedral nanowire is compressed by the AFM tip in a direction parallel to a (100) face, the plastic deformation regime is considerably larger than in the case of compression exerted in a direction parallel to a twin plane, where the fracture of the wire comes almost immediately after the elastic range ends. The strain distribution and elastic response in the compression of nanoparticles with different geometries is also discussed.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.
Flysch-type, syn-orogenic deposits of Carboniferous age occur in relation to the emplacement of a large allochthonous nappe stack in the Variscan belt of NW Iberia. New U–Pb age populations of detrital zircons obtained using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are considered together with others from previously dated samples to establish the relationships between sedimentation and thrusting. The age populations of four syn-orogenic formations are compared with those of the pre-orogenic sequence in the Autochthon and Parautochthon, representing the Gondwanan passive margin, and in the Allochthon, formed by peri-Gondwanan and oceanic terranes. In addition, a new structural study has been carried out to understand the relationships between the syn-orogenic deposits and the development of Variscan structures. The aims are to identify the sources of sediments and to establish the relationship between Variscan structural evolution and syn-orogenic sedimentation. Development of a forebulge outwards from the allochthonous front, deduced from the structural study, suggests the existence of depocentres that hosted the syn-orogenic sediments. Together with the trend shown by the more recent zircons in each formation, that are younger towards the external zones, the data suggest that sedimentation occurred in progressively migrating depocentres formed in front of the allochthonous wedge during its emplacement. The zircon age populations point to the Allochthon as the main source of detritus for the syn-orogenic basins, with perhaps a limited participation of the Parautochthon and Autochthon in the younger formations.
To establish recommendations for wetland management that promote wildlife diversity in Mediterranean habitats we examined the factors that determine feeding habitat selection by the black stork Ciconia nigra in ponds. The black stork is considered an umbrella species because it is threatened, requires large foraging ranges in priority areas, is selective in its choice of diet and nesting sites, and inhabits a characteristic biological community with endemic and threatened taxa. Eighty-five ponds were monitored in central and western Spain to detect the stork feeding. At the same time, pond variables that could affect black stork feeding preferences were periodically evaluated. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyse principal components obtained from groups of factors related to structural, location and ecological conditions. The black stork selects ponds distant from roads, with a large surface area, high water level, shallow shores, low turbidity, few traces of wild ungulates on the shores, a high diversity of fish and amphibian species, and a vegetated perimeter, in flat and open areas. Potential factors affecting feeding behaviour are discussed. We suggest measures for pond construction and management that could favour this species in particular and biodiversity in general in the Mediterranean environment.
The pre-post treatment change of 112 patients in two therapeutics Spanish communities is described. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used at intake and at the end of the treatment program. Results of the treatment program were evaluated by applying composite scores (CS) of the ASI, and the evolution of each patient was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index (RCI). 69.7% of the sample completed treatment, and 30.3% dropped out prematurely. At intake, the percentage of people who could improve in the different areas of the ASI ranged between 35.1% for alcohol consumption and 95.3% for family relationships. At the follow-up, the percentage of subjects who showed significant statistical improvements in the different areas varied between 7.9% in family relations and 66.7% in alcohol consumption. The percentage of patients who deteriorated was less than 10% for all variables. Implications for further research and clinical practice are commented upon.
The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of fear of falling (FOF) among patients over age 60 with dizziness, falls, or syncope; and to analyze risk factors associated with FOF, including data from the tilt table test. This study included 200 older patients referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic specializing in dizziness, falls, and syncope. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who experienced FOF (yes vs. no) and whether FOF restricted leaving home alone or performing activities of daily living. FOF occurred in 50 per cent of patients in this population. Among these, 44 per cent gave up going out alone and 10 per cent stopped doing basic activities of daily living. Beyond age 75, FOF was associated with recurrent dizziness, depression, and symptoms on standing, but not prior falls.
TO describe what is, to our knowledge, the first nosocomial outbreak of infection with pan–drug-resistant (including colistin-resistant) Acinetobacter baumannii, to determine the risk factors associated with these types of infections, and to determine their clinical impact.
Nested case-control cohort study and a clinical-microbiological study.
A 1,521-bed tertiary care university hospital in Seville, Spain.
Case patients were inpatients who had a pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii isolate recovered from a clinical or surveillance sample obtained at least 48 hours after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) during the time of the epidemic outbreak. Control patients were patients who were admitted to any of the “boxes” (ie, rooms that partition off a distinct area for a patient's bed and the equipment needed to care for the patient) of an ICU for at least 48 hours during the time of the epidemic outbreak.
All the clinical isolates had similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns (ie, they were resistant to all the antibiotics tested, including Colistin), and, on the basis of repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction, it was determined that all of them were of the same clone. The previous use of quinolones and glycopeptides and an ICU stay were associated with the acquisition of infection or colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii. To control this outbreak, we implemented the following multicomponent intervention program: the performance of environmental decontamination of the ICUs involved, an environmental survey, a revision of cleaning protocols, active surveillance for colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii, educational programs for the staff, and the display of posters that illustrate contact isolation measures and antimicrobial use recommendations.
We were not able to identify the common source for these cases of infection, but the adopted measures have proven to be effective at controlling the outbreak.
Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica) is one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, having erupted recently in 1967, 1969 and 1970, damaging scientific stations on the island. It is also seismically very active. The island has attracted the attention of many researchers as it constitutes an undisturbed natural laboratory to study seismo-volcanic events and how they affect landscape modelling and evolution. One of the most remarkable geological and geomorphological features on Deception Island is the linearity of its easternmost coastal landform, the origin of which remains unknown. Some answers, based on presence of strike-slip fault or on the ice cap and beach geomorphological dynamics, have been reported in the literature. Our new work provides several indications of the existence of a dip-slip submarine fault, parallel to the coast (NNW–SSE), which suggests a tectonic origin for this morphological feature. Uplifted marine terraces, incision of a fluvial network over the ice cap, normal faulting parallel to the coast in the north and south rock heads bounding the beach and sharp shelf-break with rather constant slope, constitute some of this evidence. Terrace uplift and fluvial channel incision decreasing southward from Macaroni Point, indicates possible tilt movement across this inferred fault plane.
The significance of syngenetic and epigenetic graphite occurrences from the Variscan high-temperature/low-pressure Aracena Metamorphic Belt is discussed in the framework of the tectono-thermal evolution of this southern zone of the Iberian Massif. Syngenetic graphite is associated with both low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks (La Umbría series, Precambrian in age) and high-grade, granulite facies rocks (the Precambrian Fuente del Oro series and a Cambrian calc-silicate series). Epigenetic, fluid-deposited occurrences correspond to overgrowths on existing metamorphic graphite grains and vein-type mineralization. Two types of graphitized particles with remarkable differences in reflectance, anisotropy and size can be distinguished in the Precambrian metapelites of the La Umbría series. Large, >150 μm length, platy crystals with high reflectance and anisotropy are interpreted as detrital and are considered indirect evidence of an old orogenic cycle prior to the Cadomian Orogeny, during which metamorphism exceeded greenschist facies. The coexistence of two types of particles explains the scattering of values of the c parameter of graphite determined by XRD (c = 6.72–6.74 Å), and the anomalously high temperatures of the DTA exothermic peak (close to 600 °C) of graphite with respect to that inferred from mineral assemblages in these rocks. The presence of graphite-rich quartzites and gneisses within the Fuente del Oro series and the calc-silicate series is evidence of sedimentation under reducing conditions in a continental shelf. The characteristics of graphite reflect the high-grade metamorphic conditions attained in the southern area of the Aracena Metamorphic Belt. Pervasive flow of fluids related to a major Variscan extensional event resulted in overgrowths on the pre-existing graphite in the gneisses and quartzites of the calc-silicate series, as evidenced by the heterogeneous isotopic composition of graphite single crystals in these rocks. A later stage of graphite precipitation is represented by scarce vein-type occurrences in mafic granulites that document channelled flow of fluids.