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The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
The Colombian industrial sector is moving toward alternative forms of treatment of industrial waste, considering that the waste can be a source of raw material in the production chain. Thus, aiming at the decrease in mineral fertilizer use, and maintaining or even raising the crop yield, the sugarcane industry has recently advanced in the composting of the industrial waste and application in the field, both of them being potentially sustainable practices. This manuscript reports the economic benefits and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the sugarcane production system in Colombia that has been simulated in this study to evaluate the beneficial effects of reusing industrial waste from ethanol production. This study was performed using the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (VSB) modeling software for the simulation of agricultural and industrial parameters on integrated alternatives for the sugarcane industry. Colombian sugarcane sector was modeled using three scenarios representing agricultural systems that do not use composted industrial waste vs a paired scenario for each condition where composted waste is utilized. Regarding compost and vinasse use as fertilizer and soil conditioner, GHG emissions from the biogenic origin are not included as a reported item in the matrix of GHG emissions of the sugarcane sector. Inputs for the economic and environmental assessment models are based on actual operational data from two mill sites, one located in the traditional sugarcane production region of Cauca River Valley and the other one, on the agricultural expansion region of Llanos Orientales. Here, we have found that the reuse of composted industrial waste is beneficial and provides an economic cost savings of 2–6% per year. However, it also results in an annual increase of 10–20% in the GHG emissions.
Five scarabs and one scaraboid found in Vinha das Caliças 4 (Beja, Portugal) were analyzed using a micro-analytical methodology in order to determine their mineralogical and chemical composition. Microstructural characterization and chemical analysis revealed that all were composed of a white body of crushed feldspathic sand covered by a lead-rich, alkaline-depleted silicate blue-green glaze showing evident signs of glass deterioration. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, handheld X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and micro X-ray diffraction results show that blue-green color of the glaze was produced by using copper ions (Cu2+) in conjunction with the lead antimonate bindheimite, a yellow-colored opacifier. The introduction of small amounts of tin in the structure of bindheimite enabled the production of a ternary Pb–Sb–Sn oxide. Tin, which was most likely added with the copper source (bronze scrapings), is known to facilitate the crystallization of bindheimite. The results are consistent with the five scarabs and one scaraboid being manufactured in Egypt. This study, the first archeometric study of scarabs found in the Iberian peninsula, has greatly contributed to the understanding of the influence of the Eastern and Central Mediterranean world in the Southwestern Iberia during the first millennium B.C.
This study aimed to compare intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) regarding plan quality and healthy lung sparing, in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Materials and methods
The plans of 60 patients were allocated either to the IMRT (n=30) or the VMAT (n=30) group. The dose prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV) was evaluated at the 95% level and the mean lung dose (MLD) and the healthy lung receiving 5, 10 and 20 Gy (V5, V10 and V20, respectively) were analysed. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for radiation pneumonitis was calculated with the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman model.
Both techniques achieved comparable results for target coverage (V95%=97·87 versus 97·18%, p>0·05) and homogeneity. The MLD (15·57 versus 16·98 Gy, p>0·05), V5 (60·35 versus 67·25%, p>0·05) and V10 (45·22 versus 53·14%, p=0·011) were lower for IMRT, whereas VMAT reduced V20 (26·44 versus 25·90%, p>0·05). The NTCP for radiation pneumonitis was higher for VMAT, but no statistical significance was observed (11·07 versus 12·75, p>0·05).
Both techniques seemed suitable for NSCLC treatment, but IMRT presented better results regarding lung sparing thus being beneficial in reducing the risk of radiation-induced pneumonitis.
Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0·0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0·0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0·0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0·0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0·0447), C : 12 (P = 0·0002), mirystic (C : 14, P < 0·0001) and palmitic (C : 16, P < 0·0001) saturated fatty acid concentrations and an increase in arachidic, lignoceric, palmitoleic and elaidic acid levels in the Minas frescal cheese fat made from the milk. Both the milk and the Minas frescal cheese showed a linear decrease in the concentration of monosaturated fatty acids (P < 0·0001), atherogenicity index, and thrombogenicity index (P < 0·05), while the hypocholesterolaemic: hypercholesterolaemic and omega 6: omega 3 (P > 0·05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic).
This paper introduces a novel 6-DOF parallel manipulator, which is composed of two 3-RUS parallel manipulators that share a common three-dimensional moving platform. Semi-analytical form solutions are easily obtained to solve the forward displacement analysis of the robot using the non-planar geometry of the moving platform, whereas the velocity, acceleration, and singularity analyses are performed using screw theory. A case study is included to show the application of the kinematic model, which is verified with the aid of a commercially available software. Simple kinematic analysis and reduced singular regions are the main benefits of the proposed parallel manipulator.
The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl.
Formation of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) is still not well understood and lacks of observational constraints. We observed 7 MYSO candidates using the NIFS spectrometer at Gemini North Telescope to study the accretion process at high angular resolution (~ 50 mas) and very closer to the central star. Preliminary results for 2 sources have revealed circumstellar structures traced by Brackett-Gamma, CO lines and extended H2 emission. Both sources present kinematics in the CO absorption lines, suggesting rotating structures. The next step will derive the central mass of each source by applying a keplerian model for these CO features.
We present preliminary results from a survey of molecular H2 (2.12 μm) emission in massive young stellar objects (MYSO) candidates selected from the Red MSX Source survey. We observed 354 MYSO candidates through the H2 S(1) 1-0 transition (2.12 μm) and an adjacent continuum narrow-band filters using the Spartan/SOAR and WIRCam/CFHT cameras. The continuum-subtracted H2 maps were analyzed and extended H2 emission was found in 50% of the sample (178 sources), and 38% of them (66) have polar morphology, suggesting collimated outflows. The polar-like structures are more likely to be driven on radio-quiet sources, indicating that these structures occur during the pre-ultra compact H ii phase. We analyzed the continuum images and found that 54% (191) of the sample displayed extended continuum emission and only ~23% (80) were associated to stellar clusters. The extended continuum emission is correlated to the H2 emission and those sources within stellar clusters does display diffuse H2 emission, which may be due to fluorescent H2 emission. These results support the accretion scenario for massive star formation, since the merging of low-mass stars would not produce jet-like structures. Also, the correlation between jet-like structures and radio-quiet sources indicates that higher inflow rates are required to form massive stars in a typical timescale less than 105 years.
The pulp of jussara açaí (Euterpe edulis Martius) fruit is rich in anthocyanins that exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by aerobic exercise. In the present study, we investigated the effects of jussara açaí fruit pulp consumption, either alone or in combination with aerobic exercise, on the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE-deficient (ApoE− / −) mice. Male mice were divided into four groups (control (C), control plus açaí, exercise plus açaí (EXA) and exercise (EX)) and fed the AIN-93M diet or the AIN-93M diet formulated to contain 2 % freeze-dried açaí pulp. Mice in the EX and EXA groups were subjected to a progressive running programme (5 d/week, 60 min/d, 16 m/min) for 12 weeks. Mice that were made to exercise exhibited reduced (40·85 %; P< 0·05) hepatic superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the C mice, independent of the açaí diet. Mice in the EX group exhibited a lower (42 %; P< 0·05) mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the liver compared with the C mice. Mice in the EXA and EX groups had lower percentages of hepatic lipid droplets (70 % and 56 %, respectively; P< 0·05) when compared with the C mice. Mice in the EX group had smaller (58 %; P< 0·05) area of lesions in the aorta when compared with the C mice. Serum lipid profile was not affected (P>0·05). In conclusion, aerobic exercise training rather than açaí fruit pulp consumption or a combination of both enhances the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE− / − mice.
Lear’s Macaw Anodorhynchus leari is currently listed as “Endangered” by IUCN. Although it only breeds on cliffs at two protected sites in Bahia State, Brazil, there is no accurate information on population parameters such as the number of breeding pairs and their breeding performance. Between 2009 and 2010, we sought to quantify, for the first time, breeding population size and the main breeding parameters for the species in the two known breeding sites, by quantifying the number of active nests and monitoring 75 breeding attempts. Overall, 80% of the breeding attempts were successful with 1.33 (± 0.86 SD) fledglings/breeding attempt (productivity) and 1.67 (± 0.60 SD) fledglings/successful nest (brood size). Breeding success and productivity were higher in 2010, while brood size did not vary between years and breeding sites. By adding 73 estimated nests to the 41 nests monitored, 228 individuals were estimated to be reproductively active in 2010, representing c.20% of the population (1,125 individuals). Given that the species is confined to a single population, further population increases could provoke overcrowding and negative density-dependent effects if it does not expand geographically. Therefore, long-term population monitoring focusing on the fraction of the population that is actually breeding and its breeding performance, rather than solely on the whole population size, is important for a better understanding of the population dynamics and conservation of this species.
The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.
The present work presents the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the biocompatibility and ability to dissolve and chemically protect the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOXO) of two polyethylene oxide-polystyrene oxide triblock copolymers, EO33SO13EO33 and EO38SO10EO38, where EO and SO denote the ethylene oxide and styrene oxide blocks, respectively. Block copolymer length and SO/EO ratio were selected with the objective of ensuring an optimal compromise between chain solubility, micelle formation ability and core size for enhanced drug solubilization. The temporal stability of the drug-loaded micelles and drug release profile were also analyzed as well as their efficacy as an antitumoral polymeric formulation in vitro by using a multidrug resistant ovarian tumor cell line (NCI-ADR-RES), with the special aim of analyzing the possible capability of both copolymers as potential P-glycoprotein efflux (P-gp) pump inhibitors to enhance DOXO accumulation in this cell line.
If (M,F) is a C4 compact Finsler surface of genus at least two without conjugate points, we show that the first integrals of the geodesic flow are constant. Using this fact, we show that if (M,F) is also of Landsberg type then (M,F) is Riemannian. The connection between the absence of conjugate points and the Riemannian character of the Finsler metric has some remarkable consequences concerning rigidity.
Thin film nanogranular composites of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) dispersed in a barium titanate (BaTiO3) matrix were deposited by laser ablation with different cobalt ferrite concentrations (x). The films were polycrystalline and composed by a mixture of tetragonal-BaTiO3 and CoFe2O4 with the cubic spinnel structure. A slight (111) barium titanate phase orientation and (311) CoFe2O4 phase orientation was observed. As the concentration of the cobalt ferrite increased, the grain size of the BaTiO3 phase decreased, from 91nm to 30nm, up to 50% CoFe2O4 concentration, beyond which the BaTiO3 grain size take values in the range 30-35nm. On the other hand the cobalt ferrite grain size did not show a clear trend with increasing cobalt ferrite concentration, fluctuating in the range 25nm to 30nm. The lattice parameter of the CoFe2O4 phase increased with increasing x. However, it was always smaller than the bulk value indicating that, in the films, the cobalt ferrite was under compressive stress that was progressively relaxed with increasing CoFe2O4 concentration. The magnetic measurements showed a decrease of coercive field with increasing x, which was attributed to the relaxation of the stress in the films and to the increase of particle agglomeration in bigger polycrystalline clusters with increasing cobalt ferrite concentration.