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Recent drilling successes on Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica demonstrate the viability of hot water drilling subglacial access holes to depths >2000 m. Having techniques to access deep subglacial environments reliably paves the way for subglacial lake exploration beneath the thick central West Antarctic Ice Sheet. An ideal candidate lake, overlain by ~2650 m of ice, identified by Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Chile, has led to collaboration with British Antarctic Survey to access Subglacial Lake CECs (SLCECs). To conform with the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research code of conduct, which provides a guide to responsible scientific exploration and stewardship of these pristine systems, any access drilling must minimise all aspects of contamination and disturbance of the subglacial environment. To meet these challenges, along with thicker ice and 2000 m elevation, pumping and water treatment systems developed for the Subglacial Lake Ellsworth project, together with new diesel generators, additional water heating and longer drill hose, are currently being integrated with the BEAMISH hot water drill. A dedicated test season near SLCECs will commission the new clean hot water drill, with testing and validation of all clean operating procedures. A subsequent season will then access SLCECs cleanly.
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes have been considered an important conservation mechanism to avoid deforestation. These environmental policies act in social and ecological contexts at different spatial scales. We evaluated the social-ecological fit between stakeholders and ecosystem processes in a local PES programme across three levels: social, ecological and social-ecological. We explored collaboration among stakeholders, assessed connectivity between forest units and evaluated conservation activity links between stakeholders and forest units. In addition, to increase programme effectiveness, we classified forest units based on their social and ecological importance. Our main findings suggest that non-governmental organizations occupy brokerage positions between landowners and government in a dense collaboration network. We also found a partial spatial misfit between conservation activity links and the forest units that provide the most hydrological services to Xalapa. We conclude that conservation efforts should be directed towards the middle and high part of the Pixquiac sub-watershed and that the role of non-governmental organizations as mediators should be strengthened to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the local PES programme.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
This systematic review examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural health integration into primary healthcare in the management of depression and unhealthy alcohol use in low- and middle-income countries. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review included research that studied patients aged ≥18 years with unhealthy alcohol use and/or depression of any clinical severity. An exploration of the models of integration was used to characterise a typology of behavioural health integration specific for low- and middle-income countries.
Fifty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Studies evidenced increased effectiveness of integrated care over treatment as usual for both conditions. The economic evaluations found increased direct health costs but cost-effective estimates. The included studies used six distinct behavioural health integration models.
Behavioural health integration may yield improved health outcomes, although it may require additional resources. The proposed typology can assist decision-makers to advance the implementation of integrated models.
En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
In the current work, we compared the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using plant extracts, a promising methodology against the use of chemical reducers, such as oleic acid and oleylamine. The advantages of green synthesis are one-step method, economic and ecological while the advantages of classic synthesis methods are high nanoparticle performance, homogeneity in size and smaller average sizes. With this work we want to demonstrate that plant extracts with specific mixtures of chemical compounds can obtain smaller average sizes with greater homogeneity in nanoparticles compared to the use of classical synthesis. Myrtillocactus geometrizans was used as a polar plant extract, which was selected by the chemical components contained in the extract. Phytosterols, oleic acid and betalains contained in Myrtillocactus geometrizans are biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stability of AgNP below 5 nm. TEM analysis of the green synthesis of nanoparticles revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of 5 nm and with preferential crystallographic directions of the silver plane .
Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers’ and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers’ authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents’ externalizing behavior.
Background: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. Methods: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education. The visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests selected were: Pentagon Copying Test (PCT), Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLOT), Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFDT), Facial Recognition Test (FRT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SMDT), and clock copying task (CLOX2). FreeSurfer was used to assess cortical thickness, and tract-based spatial statistics was used for fractional anisotropy analysis. Results: Lower performance in the PCT, JLOT, and SDMT was associated with extensive cortical thickness reductions in lateral parietal and temporal regions. VFDT and CLOX2 did not show this common pattern and correlated with more limited medial occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal regions. Performance in all visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests correlated with fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Conclusions: Our findings show that JLOT, SDMT, and PCT, in addition to differentiating patients from controls, are suitable visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests to reflect cortical thinning in lateral temporo-parietal regions in PD patients. We did not observe the dissociation between dorsal and ventral streams that was expected according to the neuropsychological classification of visuospatial and visuoperceptual tests. (JINS, 2018, 24, 33–44)
Despite their importance as freshwater reservoirs for downstream river systems, few glaciers in central Chile have been comprehensively surveyed. This study presents ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and field-based observations for characterizing the englacial and basal conditions of Glaciar Olivares Alfa (33°110 S, 70°130 W), central Chilean Andes. Using a 50 MHz radar mounted onto a helicopter platform, data were collected covering large portions of the glacier accumulation and ablation zones. The radar data revealed boundaries of a temperate-ice layer at the base of the eastern body of Glaciar Olivares Alfa which appears to be covered by colder ice that extends throughout large parts of the glacier. The thickness of the temperate ice layer is highly variable across the glacier, being on average 40% of the total ice thickness. Radar data analyses reveal regions of cold ice at the bottom/base of the glacier and also patterns of highly saturated sediments beneath the glacier. Using GPR data, this study represents the most exhaustive analysis of glacier ice structure performed in the central Chilean Andes. The results will enable improved estimations of the glacier’s mass balance and ice dynamics, helping us to understand its further development and its impact on water availability.
Purpose: To explore the use of three-dimensional patient-specific cardiovascular models using rapid prototyping techniques (fused deposition modelling) to improve surgical planning in patients with complex congenital heart disease. Description: Rapid prototyping techniques are used to print accurate three-dimensional replicas of patients' cardiovascular anatomy based on magnetic resonance images using computer-aided design systems. Models are printed using a translucent polylactic acid polymer. Evaluation: As a proof of concept, a model of the heart of a 1.5-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis was constructed to help planning the surgical correction. The cardiac model allowed the surgeon to evaluate the location and dimensions of the ventricular septal defect as well as its relationship with the aorta and pulmonary artery. Conclusions: Cardiovascular models constructed by rapid prototyping techniques are extremely helpful for planning corrective surgery in patients with complex congenital malformations. Therefore they may potentially reduce operative time and morbi-mortality.
In order to measure total ice thickness and surface snow accumulation in Antarctica, we have designed and built a surveying system comprising two types of radar. This system is aimed at having low power consumption, low weight/volume and low construction cost. The system has a pulse-compression radar to measure ice thickness, and a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) radar designed to measure hundreds of meters of surface snow/firn layers with high resolution. The pulse-compression radar operates at 155MHz, 20 MHz of bandwidth; and the FM-CW radar operates from 550 to 900 MHz. The system was tested in December 2010 at Union Glacier (79°46'S, 83°24'W), West Antarctica, during an oversnow campaign, where Union and other nearby glaciers (Schanz, Schneider and Balish) were covered through 82 km of track. Ice thickness of 1540m and snow/firn thickness of 120 m were detected in the area. The collected data allowed the subglacial topography, internal ice structure, isochronous and the snow/ice boundary layer to be detected. Here we describe radar electronics, their main features and some of the results obtained during the first test campaign. Further improvements will focus on the adaptation of the system to be implemented on board airplane platforms.
The beneficial effects of cocoa on vascular function are mediated by the absorption of monomeric flavanols into the circulation from the small intestine. As such, an understanding of the impact of the food matrix on the delivery of flavanols to the circulation is critical in assessing the potential vascular impact of a food. In the present study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate type on flavanol absorption and metabolism from chocolate. A randomised, double-blind, three-arm cross-over study was conducted, where fifteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a high-flavanol (266 mg) chocolate containing maltitol, a high-flavanol (251 mg) chocolate with sucrose or a low-flavanol (48 mg) chocolate with sucrose. Test chocolates were matched for micro- and macronutrients, including the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, and were similar in taste and appearance. Total flavanol absorption was lower after consumption of the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with following consumption of its sucrose-containing equivalent (P = 0·002). Although the O-methylation pattern observed for absorbed flavanols was unaffected by sugar type, individual levels of unmethylated ( − )-epicatechin metabolites, 3′-O-methyl-epicatechin and 4′-O-methyl-epicatechin metabolites were lower for the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with the sucrose-containing equivalent. Despite a reduction in the total plasma pool of flavanols, the maximum time (Tmax) was unaffected. The present data indicate that full assessment of intervention treatments is vital in future intervention trials with flavanols and that carbohydrate content is an important determinant for the optimal delivery of flavanols to the circulation.
We describe the development of a low-frequency airborne radar specifically designed for the sounding of temperate ice. The system operates at a central frequency of 1 MHz and consists of an impulse transmitter with an output voltage up to 5000 V and a digital receiver with a maximum gain of 80 dB. The radar was deployed on board a CASA 212 aircraft, which also carries a laser altimeter, an inertial navigation system, a digital camera and a GPS receiver. A description of the radar system is provided, as well as preliminary results obtained at Glaciar Tyndall, Campo de Hielo Sur (Southern Patagonia Icefield), where an ice depth of 670 m was reached.
Different approaches to estimating local catchment-area needs for psychiatric services are illustrated and compared.
Data from an epidemiological morbidity survey of a random sample of 496 adults were available, as were actual service utilisation rates. Four types of utilisation were modelled (i.e. overall out-patient, in-patient, emergency clinic) using social indicators available from Statistics Canada census-tract data. Finally, a case–control study compared out-patients from a deprived and an affluent catchment area, matched case by case for primary diagnosis, age, sex and residential status (n=52).
Modelling proved highly predictive of utilisation, the overall-use model accounting for 73% of the variance. The case–control study indicated a higher rate of Axis II traits, substance abuse and needs for social care in the deprived catchment area.
Resource allocation based on the social indicators modelling method was more consistent with sensible distribution of human resources. None of the methods, however, appear to reflect adequately the severity of caseloads evidenced in the case–control study.
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