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Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of nine species of microalgae have been determined to study its potential as healthy ingredients for functional foods. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity, two different techniques have been used. Firstly, a colorimetric test was carried out in order to detect the presence of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant compounds, this method is based on the detection of the radical ABTS + , which is produced by the oxidation of ABTS in the presence of potassium persulfate, detection of the radical ABTS + decreases in the presence of antioxidant compounds. Also the ORAC test was also applied for this purpose. Results with both methods showed very promising results for Rhodomonas lens. Thus this species was chosen to develop a functional cheese and study the healthy properties that the microalgae confer on it.
To determine the antimicrobial activity five food food-borne pathogenic strains were used: Escherichia coli CECT 516, Enterococcus faecalis CECT 481, Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935, Salmonella enterica CECT 4594 and S. aureus CECT 435. First, extracts of different polarity were obtained from microalgae. From each species, 4 extracts were obtained using different solvents of higher to less polarity (MilliQ Water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane). The use of these solvents is common in the preparation of plant extracts, since they ensure the solubility of most of the compounds of interest and do not show toxicity after evaporation to determine the antimicrobial activity. The agar diffusion technique was used and the plates were kept refrigerated at 4 ° C for 1 h to allow the extracts to diffuse through the agar and subsequently incubated at 37 ° C for 24 h to allow microbial growth. After that time the presence of inhibition halos was observed around the perforations of the plates. Results showed that the ethanolic extract presented more antimicrobial activity than the extracts using MilliQ Water, ethyl acetate or hexane. Salmonella was not inhibited by any of the extracts studied.
Sucralose is an artificial non-nutritive sweetener used in foods aimed to reduce sugar and energy intake. While thought to be inert, the impact of sucralose on metabolic control has shown to be the opposite. The gut microbiome has emerged as a factor shaping metabolic responses after sweetener consumption. We examined the short-term effect of sucralose consumption on glucose homeostasis and gut microbiome of healthy male volunteers. We performed a randomised, double-blind study in thirty-four subjects divided into two groups, one that was administered sucralose capsules (780 mg/d for 7 d; n 17) and a control group receiving placebo (n 17). Before and after the intervention, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were assessed with a standard oral glucose load (75 g). Insulin resistance was determined using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indexes. The gut microbiome was evaluated before and after the intervention by 16S rRNA sequencing. During the study, body weight remained constant in both groups. Glycaemic control and insulin resistance were not affected during the 7-d period. At the phylum level, gut microbiome was not modified in any group. We classified subjects according to their change in insulinaemia after the intervention, to compare the microbiome of responders and non-responders. Independent of consuming sucralose or placebo, individuals with a higher insulinaemic response after the intervention had lower Bacteroidetes and higher Firmicutes abundances. In conclusion, consumption of high doses of sucralose for 7 d does not alter glycaemic control, insulin resistance, or gut microbiome in healthy individuals. However, it highlights the need to address individual responses to sucralose.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
Although there is a vast bibliography on the negative consequences of unemployment for mental health, there are no studies that analyze the differences between men and women in relation to the consequences that unemployment could have simultaneously on self-esteem and depression. The main objective of this study was to analyze whether, unemployment is differentially associated with the self-esteem of men and women, and to test whether this circumstance can be considered a psychological mechanism by which we could explain differences in depression for men and women. Results show that self-esteem is a mediating variable (indirect effect = .11; 90% CI [.04, .19]), considering its differential impact on depression, but this mediation is moderated by the gender of the respondents (b = .21, 90% IC [.01, .40]. In summary, unemployment is associated with lower self-esteem, which in turn is related to greater depressive symptoms. This relationship is only observed for men and not for women.
Museums are organizations that need to maintain relationships with several stakeholders in order to achieve their economic and social objectives. In this context, the current paper explores the effect of an organization’s bonding social capital and a manager’s social capital on the organization’s ability to build external relationships, in other words, bridging social capital. Results from the study indicate that the structure of internal social capital (cohesion and diversity) and the manager’s role as a bridging tie facilitate relations with stakeholders and other museum networks. Moreover, collective social capital (bonding and bridging) has a direct impact on innovative proposals, on the museum’s image and on incomes, all of which entail key management implications.
The EU infrastructure policy has relied on Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) as a means to successfully deliver infrastructure of benefit for the EU. To reach its infrastructure policy objectives, the EU has implemented support mechanisms aimed at facilitating the delivery of PPPs. This article is aimed at evaluating to what extent these mechanisms have actually contributed to improving the economic performance of PPPs. To that end, we have selected the case of Spanish road PPPs for empirical analysis. The main result shows that EU support positively influences the economic performance of PPP projects. This is caused by the fact that the EU conditions its financial support on a project’s meeting a set of requirements that help assure the success of the project. From this result, we obtain a set of conclusions that may be generalised to other cases, and provide a contribution to the body of knowledge on PPPs.
In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. For observing the relative importance of the journals that publish articles in this specific topic, an index has been created based on the h-index of the journal with publications related to human parasitology and divided by every 100 items. This rank is led fist by ‘Journal of Medical Entomology’ closely followed by ‘Parasitology’. The analysis of the keywords allows to draw conclusions about the great importance of malaria in the current world research. A change in analytical methodology is also observed, and molecular techniques are now being imposed. These techniques, in the near future, have to influence in an improvement in the treatments and prevention of the diseases caused by parasites. Finally, it can be seen that diseases traditionally studied as helminthiasis and amebiasis are currently as well studied as others such as toxoplasmosis or leishmaniasis.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some major groups of reptiles such as amphisbaenians, a distinctive group with many morphological and ecological adaptations to fossorial life. Conditions of the fossorial environment might also affect host–parasite relationships. We investigated the presence and the potential prevalence of three genera of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan blood parasites (Hepatozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in the amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni, a fossorial worm lizard species from North West Africa. Blood parasite infection was not detected in T. wiegmanni, both in visual surveys of blood smears and using molecular methods to detect DNA of such parasites in the blood of the potential amphisbaenian hosts. We discuss how conditions of the fossorial environment might affect blood parasitaemias in amphisbaenians as well as in other fossorial reptiles.
The first objective of this study was to investigate whether police violence is more tolerated when the victim is a member of a social minority (e.g., Moroccan immigrants and Romanian Gypsies in Spain) than when the victim is a member of the social majority (e.g., Spaniards). The second objective was to use Schwartz value theory to examine the moderating role of values on attitudes towards tolerance of police violence. The participants were 207 sociology and social work students from a public university in Madrid. Overall, in this study, police violence was more accepted when the victim was a member of a social minority; F(2, 206) = 77.91, p = .001, ηp2 = 0.433, and in general, values moderated this acceptance. Thus, greater adherence to the conservation and self-promotion values subsystems would strengthen support for police violence towards a social minority member. On the other hand, greater adherence to the openness to change and self-transcendence subsystems diminish this support.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between class-related anxiety with perceived control, teacher-reported behavioral engagement, behavioral disaffection, and academic performance. Participants were 355 compulsory secondary students (9th and 10th grades; Mean age = 15.2 years; SD = 1.8 years). Structural equation models revealed performance was predicted by perceived control, anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Perceived control predicted anxiety, disaffection, and engagement. Anxiety predicted disaffection and engagement, and partially mediated the effects from control on disaffection (β = –.277, p < .005; CI = –.378, –.197) and engagement (β = .170, p < .002; CI = .103 .258). The negative association between anxiety and performance was mediated by engagement and disaffection (β = –.295, p < .002; CI = –.439, –.182). Anxiety, engagement, and disaffection mediated the effects of control on performance (β = .352, p < .003; CI = .279, .440). The implications of these results are discussed in the light of current theory and educational interventions.
Hydrogen termination of diamond lowers its ionization energy, driving electron transfer from the valence band into an adsorbed water layer or to a strong molecular acceptor. This gives rise to p-type surface conductivity with holes confined to a subsurface layer of a few nanometers thickness. The transfer doping mechanism, the electronic behavior of the resulting hole accumulation layer, and the development of robust field-effect transistor (FET) devices using this platform are reviewed. An alternative method of modulating the hole carrier density has been developed based upon an electrolyte-gate architecture. The operation of the resulting “solution-gated” FET architecture in two contemporary applications will be described: the charge state control of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and biosensing. Despite 25 years of work in this area, our knowledge of surface conductivity of diamond continues to develop.
Networks of protected areas are one of the main strategies used to address the biodiversity crisis. These should encompass as many species and ecosystems as possible, particularly in territories with high biological diversity, such as the Spanish arid zones. We produce a priority ranking of the arid zones of south-east Spain according to the rarity and richness of their characteristic flora and the level of endangerment. The resulting hierarchy shows that optimal zones for the preservation of the flora are located outside the network of protected areas. In particular, it is important to extend the network and encourage the creation of microreserves in the depression of the River Guadiana Menor (Granada), where there is least protection. This river valley is a particularly important arid site because of its unique flora and fauna, and palaeontological and archaeological findings.
The characterization of biological and inorganic materials by determining their three-dimensional structure in conditions closer to their native state is a major challenge of technological research. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) provides access to the observation of hydrated samples in water environments. Here, we present a specific device for ESEM in the scanning transmission electron microscopy mode, allowing the acquisition of tilt-series suitable for tomographic reconstructions. The resolution which can be obtained with this device is first determined. Then, we demonstrate the feasibility of tomography on wet materials. The example studied here is hydrophilic mesoporous silica (MCM-41). Finally, the minimum thickness of water which can be detected is calculated from Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the resolution expected in the tomograms.
We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of δ Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence δ Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of δ Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around δ Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.
Reinforced Poly Ether Ether Ketone with 30% of Carbon Fiber (PEEK CF30) offer several thermo-mechanical advantages over standard materials and alloys which make them better candidates in different applications. However, the hard and abrasive nature of the reinforcement fiber is responsible for rapid tool wear and high machining costs. It is very important to find highly effective ways to machine that material. Accordingly, it is important to predict forces when machining fiber matrix composites because this will help to choose perfect tools for machining and ultimately save both money and time. In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied to predict the cutting force components in turning operations of PEEK CF30 using TiN coated cutting tools under dry conditions where the machining parameters are cutting speed ranges, feed rate, and depth of cut. For this study, the experiments have been conducted using full factorial design experiments (DOEs) on CNC turning machine. The results indicated that the well-trained (ANN) model could be able to predict the cutting force components in turning of Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP) composites. Complementary results that were not used during derivation of the ANN model have enabled one to assess the validity of the obtained predictions.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in its various forms from the perspective of all of the individuals involved (victims, bullies, and witnesses) and to explore its distribution as a function of gender. The study had a correlational design and used a representative sample of 1500 Spanish students attending compulsory secondary education in the academic year 2007–2008. It applied an instrument measuring different types of bullying, taken from the studies conducted by Díaz-Aguado, Martínez, and Martín (2004) and the Defensor del Pueblo (Spanish Ombudsman’s Office)-UNICEF (2007). The findings reveal that all the types of bullying considered take place at school and that there is an inverse relationship between the severity and the prevalence of bullying behaviors, with verbal abuse proving to be the most common type of abusive behavior. Boys are involved in all kinds of bullying incidents as bullies significantly more often than girls are, except in cases involving ‘talking about someone behind their back’; in these situations, girls are involved significantly more often as bullies than boys are. As for victimization, boys are victims of direct physical abuse significantly more often than girls are, while girls are more often the subject of malicious gossip.