To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We tracked the relative integration and differentiation among life history traits over the period spanning AD 1800–1999 in the Britannic and Gallic biocultural groups. We found that Britannic populations tended toward greater strategic differentiation, while Gallic populations tended toward greater strategic integration. The dynamics of between-group competition between these two erstwhile rival biocultural groups were hypothesized as driving these processes. We constructed a latent factor that specifically sought to measure between-group competition and residualized it for the logarithmic effects of time. We found a significantly asymmetrical impact of between-group competition, where the between-group competition factor appeared to be driving the diachronic integration in Gallic populations but had no significantly corresponding influence on the parallel process of diachronic differentiation in Britannic populations. This suggests that the latter process was attributable to some alternative and unmeasured causes, such as the resource abundance consequent to territorial expansion rather than contraction.
The University of São Paulo Twin Panel (Painel USP de Gêmeos), based at the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, started formally in 2017. Our registry is new, but in only two years of formal existence, it comprises a volunteer sample of 4826 registered individuals (98% twins and 2% higher-order multiples), recruited at the University of São Paulo and by social media campaigns. Our main aim is to conduct and promote research with twins on psychological processes and behavior. The University of São Paulo is the largest higher education and research institution in South America, and the Painel USP de Gêmeos has great potential for fostering research on twin-related issues from a psychological perspective in Brazil and South America.
Ternary Al–15 wt% Cu–7 wt% Si and Al–22 wt% Cu–7 wt% Si alloy specimens were generated by transient directional solidification (DS) and rapid solidification (RS) techniques. The microstructures are constituted by an α-Al dendritic matrix surrounded by two eutectic, that is, a binary eutectic (Si + α-Al) and a bimodal eutectic, consisting of cellular-type binary eutectic colonies (α-Al + Al2Cu) in a ternary eutectic matrix consisting of α-Al + Al2Cu + Si. The bimodal eutectic exists at cooling rates from 0.5 to 250 K/s. The secondary dendritic spacing, λ2, of the DS samples varied from 5 to 20 μm and from 10 to 18 μm for both examined alloys. The λ2 from 2.7 to 4.0 μm characterized the RS samples. Mechanical properties have been determined for various samples related to different dendritic spacing values. Based on the evaluation of the rapidly solidified microstructures, it was possible to assess the cooling rates.
The aim of this study was to construct and validate an Attitude Scale relating to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) old age (EAFV-LGBT). The first study, consisting of 29 items in its preliminary version, counted on 266 individuals from the public in general with an average age of 28.6 years (DP = 9.70), exploratory factor analysis was undertaken and EAFV-LGBT consisted of twelve items, with eigenvalues of 5.08, accounting for 43.8% of total variance. The second study consisted of 261 individuals from the general public with an average age of 23.18 years (DP = 8.25), confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken and psychometric parameters by means of Item Response Theory and conformation of the EAFV-LGBT structure. After this analysis, two items were excluded due to lower psychometric values, in which the 10 item scale proved to be valid and precise in evaluating individuals with varying levels of the latent trait. An adequate fit of the model to the data was verified, CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.6; RMSEA, 90% CI = 0.05 [0.01, 0.07]. Lastly, the EAFV-LGBT has valid psychometric properties to evaluate attitudes towards LGBT old age.
The reduction of cis-[CoIII(κ2N,N′-1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2Cl2]Cl into the neutral compound cis-[CoII(κ2N,N′-1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2Cl2] was observed during developmental studies of new antimalarial drugs. The crystal structure of cis-[CoII(κ2N,N′-1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2Cl2] was unveiled by powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD). PXRD details, unit cell parameters, and space group for cis-[CoII(κ2N,N′-1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2Cl2], C24H12Cl2CoN4O4, are reported [a = 41.4951 (13) Å, b = 8.2768 (2) Å, c = 12.4994 (3) Å, unit cell volume V = 4292.9 (2) Å3, Z = 8, and space group Fdd2]. Infrared spectroscopy features are also discussed.
Burkart et al. present a paradox – general factors of intelligence exist among individual differences (g) in performance in several species, and also at the aggregate level (G); however, there is ambiguous evidence for the existence of g when analyzing data using a mixed approach, that is, when comparing individuals of different species using the same cognitive ability battery. Here, we present an empirical solution to this paradox.
Coastal ecosystems are highly complex and driven by multiple environmental factors. To date we lack scientific evidence for the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic drivers for the majority of marine habitats in order to adequately assess the role of different stressors across the European seas. Such relationship can be investigated by analysing the correlation between environmental variables and biotic patterns in multivariate space and taking into account non-linearities. Within the framework of the EMBOS (European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System) programme, hard bottom intertidal communities were sampled in a standardized way across European seas. Links between key natural and anthropogenic drivers and hard bottom communities were analysed using Boosted Regression Trees modelling. The study identified strong interregional variability and showed that patterns of hard bottom macroalgal and invertebrate communities were primarily a function of tidal regime, nutrient loading and water temperature (anomalies). The strength and shape of functional form relationships varied widely however among types of organisms (understorey algae composing mostly filamentous species, canopy-forming algae or sessile invertebrates) and aggregated community variables (cover or richness). Tidal regime significantly modulated the effect of nutrient load on the cover and richness of understorey algae and sessile invertebrates. In contrast, hydroclimate was more important for canopy algae and temperature anomalies and hydroclimate separately or interactively contributed to the observed patterns. The analyses also suggested that climate-induced shifts in weather patterns may result in the loss of algal richness and thereby in the loss of functional diversity in European hard bottom intertidal areas.
Within the COST action EMBOS (European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System) the degree and variation of the diversity and densities of soft-bottom communities from the lower intertidal or the shallow subtidal was measured at 28 marine sites along the European coastline (Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean) using jointly agreed and harmonized protocols, tools and indicators. The hypothesis tested was that the diversity for all taxonomic groups would decrease with increasing latitude. The EMBOS system delivered accurate and comparable data on the diversity and densities of the soft sediment macrozoobenthic community over a large-scale gradient along the European coastline. In contrast to general biogeographic theory, species diversity showed no linear relationship with latitude, yet a bell-shaped relation was found. The diversity and densities of benthos were mostly positively correlated with environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, mud and organic matter content in sediment, or wave height, and related with location characteristics such as system type (lagoons, estuaries, open coast) or stratum (intertidal, subtidal). For some relationships, a maximum (e.g. temperature from 15–20°C; mud content of sediment around 40%) or bimodal curve (e.g. salinity) was found. In lagoons the densities were twice higher than in other locations, and at open coasts the diversity was much lower than in other locations. We conclude that latitudinal trends and regional differences in diversity and densities are strongly influenced by, i.e. merely the result of, particular sets and ranges of environmental factors and location characteristics specific to certain areas, such as the Baltic, with typical salinity clines (favouring insects) and the Mediterranean, with higher temperatures (favouring crustaceans). Therefore, eventual trends with latitude are primarily indirect and so can be overcome by local variation of environmental factors.
Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium.
The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment.
The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62–0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20–9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication.
Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.
Iron is an essential element for the survival of trichomonads during host–parasite interaction. The availability of this metal modulates several metabolic pathways of the parasites and regulates the expression of virulence factors such as adhesins and proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron depletion on the morphology and life cycle of Tritrichomonas foetus. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that depletion of iron from the culture medium (named TYM-DIP inducer medium) induces morphological transformation of typical pear-shaped trophozoites into spherical and non-motile pseudocysts. Remarkably, inoculation of pseudocysts into an iron-rich medium (standard TYM medium), or addition of FeSO4 to a TYM-DIP inducer medium reverted the morphological transformation process and typical trophozoites were recovered. These results show that pseudocysts are viable forms of the parasite and highlight the role of iron as a modulator of the parasite phenotype. Although iron is required for the survival of T. foetus, iron depletion does not cause a cellular collapse of pseudocysts, but instead induces phenotypic alterations, probably in order to allow the parasite to survive conditions of nutritional stress. Together, these findings support previous studies that suggest pseudocysts are a resistance form in the life cycle of T. foetus and enable new approaches to understanding the multifactorial role of iron in the cell biology of this protozoan parasite.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.
The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used delirium screening instrument. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the European Portuguese version of CAM.
The sample included elderly patients (≥65 years), admitted for at least 48 h, into two intermediate care units (ICMU) of Intensive Medicine and Surgical Services in a university hospital. Exclusion criteria were: score ≤11 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate and to speak Portuguese. For concurrent validity, a blinded assessment was conducted by a psychiatrist (DSM-IV-TR, as a reference standard) and by a trained researcher (CAM). This instrument was also compared with other cognitive measures to evaluate convergent validity. Inter-rater reliability was also assessed.
In this sample (n = 208), 25% (n = 53) of the patients had delirium, according to DSM-IV-TR. Using this reference standard, the CAM had a moderate sensitivity of 79% and an excellent specificity of 99%. The positive predictive value was 95%, indicating a strong ability to confirm delirium with a positive test result, and the negative predictive value was lower (93%). Good convergent validity was also found, in particular with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (rs = −0.676; p ≤0.01) and Digit Span Test (DST) forward (rs = −0.605; p ≤0.01), as well as a high inter-rater reliability (diagnostic k = 1.00; single items’ k between 0.65 and 1.00).
Robust results on concurrent and convergent validity and good reliability were achieved. This version was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for delirium detection in elderly patients hospitalized in intermediate care units.
To present the pilot study on the European Portuguese validation of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM).
The translation process was carried out according to International Society Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guidelines with trained researchers and inter-rater reliability assessment. The study included 50 elderly patients, admitted (≥24 h) to two intermediate care units. Exclusion criteria were: Glasgow Coma Scale (total score ≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate and not able to speak Portuguese. The sensitivity and specificity of CAM were assessed, with DSM-IV-TR criteria of delirium used as a reference standard.
The aim of this study is to analyse and determine elemental abundances for a large sample of distant B stars in the outer Galactic disk in order to constrain the chemical distribution of the Galactic disk and models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we present preliminary results on a few stars along with the adopted methodology based on securing simultaneous O and Si ionization equilibria with consistent NLTE model atmospheres.
The research of stars with the B[e] phenomenon is still in its infancy, with several unanswered questions. Physically realistic models that treat the formation and evolution of their complex circumstellar environments are rare. The code HDUST (developed by A. C. Carciofi and J. Bjorkman) is one of the few existing codes that provides a self-consistent treatment of the radiative transfer in a gaseous and dusty circumstellar environment seen around B[e] supergiant stars. In this work we used the HDUST code to study the circumstellar medium of the binary system GG Car, where the primary component is probably an evolved B[e] supergiant. This system also presents a disk (probably circumbinary), which is responsible for the molecular and dusty signatures seen in GG Car spectra. We obtained VLTI/MIDI data on GG~Car at eight baselines, which allowed to spatially resolve the gaseous and dusty circumstellar environment. From the interferometric visibilities and SED modeling with HDUST, we confirm the presence of a compact ring, where the hot dust lies. We also show that large grains can reproduce the lack of structure in the SED and visibilities across the silicate band. We conclude the dust condensation site is much closer to the star than previously thought. This result provides stringent constraints on future theories of grain formation and growth around hot stars.
Morphometric characteristics of the periotic–timpanic bone complex in the middle ear of cetaceans, are effective characteristics in evaluating systematics. However, they have not been used for studies of geographic variation regarding dolphins of the genus Sotalia. This study aimed to compare the periotic–timpanic of Sotalia guianensis from four distinct locations, considered here as different operational taxonomic units, Amapá/Pará (AM/PA), Maranhão/Piauí (MA/PI), Ceará (CE), and Rio de Janeiro (RJ), using 21 morphometric measurements. Multivariate analysis showed significant distinction mainly between the units of northern (AM/PA and MA/PI) and south-eastern (RJ) Brazilian coast. The timpanic bone showed variation, reaching larger sizes in the Brazilian south coast unit, corroborating current molecular data on the geographic variation of S. guianensis.
In this paper we describe the preparation of fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for traceable drug delivery systems. The nanoparticles were prepared following a sol–gel procedure, incorporating a modified perylenediimide dye in the silica structure. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy show that the nanoparticles are monodispersed, with a spheroid shape and a raspberry-type surface morphology. The hybrid MSNs are robust, maintaining the mesoporous structure after template removal, with a pore diameter above 2 nm. A polymer shell was synthesized from the external surface of the hybrid nanoparticles by atom transfer radical polymerization, showing temperature-switchable collapsed/expanded conformation control. The fluorescent properties of the perylenediimide dye incorporated in the MSN pore walls are intact, and internalization in HEK293 cells shows that the nanoparticles are efficiently dispersed in the cytosol. These results show that the mesoporous fluorescent hybrid nanoparticles are an excellent platform for development of a traceable drug delivery system.
Recently, several case studies have demonstrated the presence of human radiocarbon dietary reservoir effects in inland contexts. Freshwater reservoir effects present a high degree of variability, making it difficult to define local reservoir effect reference values necessary for correcting chronologies based on 14C dating of human bone material. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that 14C ages of edible freshwater species are delimited by the 14C ages of the main water carbon pools (DIC, POC, and DOC).
Water, plant, algae, bivalve, and fish samples were collected from lakes Schwerin and Ostorf (Germany). 14C and isotopic measurements were performed on the floral and faunal species and on water DIC, POC, and DOC. The results demonstrate the potential of the study area for large and variable freshwater reservoir effects. In the case of Lake Schwerin, the working hypothesis was verified as the 14C ages of faunal and floral species were delimited by the 14C ages of water DIC and POC, probably associated with 2 extreme categories of food chains (grazing and detritus). While the results obtained confirm the working hypothesis and suggest a relatively straightforward interpretation, further research is necessary to investigate possible spatial and seasonal variations.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in a large Portuguese community sample. Participants were 1020 adults (585 women and 435 men), with a mean age of 36.74 (SD = 11.90) years. All scales revealed good reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha values between .80 (anxiety) and .84 (depression). The internal consistency of the total score was .92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the best-fitting model (*CFI = .940, *RMSEA = .038) consisted of a latent component of general psychological distress (or negative affectivity) plus orthogonal depression, anxiety and stress factors. The Portuguese version of the DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties (factorial validity and reliability) and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and stress symptoms.
The radiocarbon concentration of different atherosclerotic plaque fragments obtained from 20 patients in Portugal, operated in 2000–2001, has been measured in order to define the year of plaque formation. A difference of 1.8–15 yr was observed, with the mean and median both 9 yr, between the bomb-pulse date estimated with the CALIBomb software and the operation date. Stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analysis was also performed and provides insight to the diet of the subjects. The wide range of measured stable isotope values could indicate that the subjects' diet varied, including an abundance of marine foodstuffs. It could also mean a different isotope fractionation process for the different plaque fragments (cap, core, interface to media) and a possible difference in tissues in which the various fragments are formed. Analysis of δ13C and δ15N values of each patient separately revealed subjects considered more influenced by marine foodstuffs consumption.