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To investigate the relationship between the intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCB) at the age of 13 years and adult weight status 24–30 years later.
A longitudinal study with 30 years of follow-up from adolescence (age 13 years in 1976) to adulthood (up to 2000 and 2006). Dietary intake was assessed through cross-check dietary history face-to-face interviews by a dietitian. Beverages were divided into two categories: (i) total SCB and (ii) SCB excluding 100 % fruit juices. Percentage of total fat (%total fat) and percentage of trunk fat (%trunk fat) were obtained through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements; body weight and height were measured by trained staff.
Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, the Netherlands.
One hundred and fourteen males and 124 females.
In males, but not in females, each additional daily serving of SCB excluding 100 % fruit juices at 13 years was associated with 1·14 % higher %total fat (95 % CI 0·04, 2·23 %; P = 0·04) and 1·62 % higher %trunk fat (95 % CI 0·14, 3·10 %; P = 0·03) in adulthood after correction for confounders. No statistically significant relationship was found between the intake of SCB excluding 100 % fruit juices at the age of 13 and BMI in both sexes. In addition, no statistically significant relationships were found between the intake of total SCB and all measures of adult weight status in both sexes.
Intake of SCB excluding 100 % fruit juices at the age of 13 years was positively associated with adult %total fat and %trunk fat in males, but not in females.
Insight into the role of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) is of great importance when it comes to prevention of weight gain and design of interventions tailored to target these behaviours.
First, the present study examines the longitudinal association of four EBRB in Norwegian adolescents. Second, it aims to examine whether clusters of EBRB are cross-sectionally associated with being overweight.
The present study is part of the ‘Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks’ project. The study sample consists of twenty control schools in two Norwegian counties.
Survey questionnaires were completed by 884 pupils with an average age at baseline, September 2001, of 11·8 years. In the follow-up surveys in May 2002 and May 2005, a total of 809 and 724 adolescents participated, respectively. Four EBRB were measured: habitual fruit and vegetable intake, snacking and soda consumption, television and computer use and physical activity.
Results of the associations between EBRB were similar for boys and girls. The odds, ranging from 1·14 to 12·06, were mostly significant. One out of four clusters, the unhealthy cluster, was significantly and cross-sectionally associated with overweight and obesity.
Longitudinal associations of EBRB show that it is important to start early with interventions that aim to prevent unhealthy behaviours becoming habitual. These behaviours should be targeted at the same time as they tend to co-occur. More research, preferably longitudinal and more objective, is needed to investigate associations between health behaviours and body weight among adolescents.
To examine the association between energy density and energy costs in single food items and composed diets, and to explore differences in energy density and energy cost between income levels.
A cross-sectional study using data from two Dutch cohort studies and recent national food prices. Food prices were retrieved from two market leader supermarkets. Data on dietary intake were measured using a computerized face-to-face interview (cohort 1) and 24 h recalls (cohort 2).
A sample of 373 young adults from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS, measured in 2000) and a sample of 200 community-dwelling elderly from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (LASA, measured in 2007).
We found significant inverse associations between energy density and energy costs in single food items (r = −0·436, P < 0·01) and composed diets (AGHLS men r = −0·505, women r = −0·413, P < 0·001; LASA men r = −0·559, women r = −0·562, P < 0·001). Furthermore, we found that people stratified into higher energy density quartiles consumed significantly more energy per day, less fruits and vegetables, and had significantly lower diet costs. Explorative analyses on income did not reveal significant differences regarding energy density, costs, or fruit and vegetable intake.
In the Netherlands also, energy density was inversely related with energy costs, implying that healthier diets cost more. However, we could not find differences in energy density or costs between income levels. Future research, using precise food expenditures, is of main importance in studying the economics of obesity and in the aim of making the healthier choice easier.
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