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We undertook observations with the Green Bank Telescope, simultaneously with the 300 m telescope in Arecibo, as a follow-up of a possible flare of radio emission from Ross 128. We report here the non-detections from the GBT observations in C band (4–8 GHz), as well as non-detections in archival data at L band (1.1–1.9 GHz). We suggest that a likely scenario is that the emission comes from one or more satellites passing through the same region of the sky.
Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the Galaxy. Although counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favour of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than the Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high-quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operates only for certain combinations of period and eccentricity. Binaries having a solar-type primary seem to be quite well-suited niches having wide and distant habitable zones with plentiful water and sufficient light for photosynthetic life. We speculate that, as a direct result of BHM, conditions may be suitable for life on several planets and possibly even moons of giant planets orbiting some binaries. Lower mass combinations, while more restrictive in parameter space, provide niches lasting many billions of years and are rich suppliers of photosynthetic photons. We provide a publicly available web-site (http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator or http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator-mirror), which calculates the BHM effects presented in this paper.
Temporal variations in the frequency of multiple maternities in many Western European countries have been described. However, within a single country, regional differences are observed. Urban industrialized regions and rural agricultural areas have experienced in recent decades a distinct decline in multiple deliveries, which in cases have been related to maternal age and parity changes. Research on multiple deliveries in Spain is scarce and none of the studies go back to the beginning of the 20th century or consider regional variation over an extended period of time. The present paper is a yearly study on multiple deliveries in Spain since 1900 including a geographical analysis. Rather than dealing with recent changes in multi-parity, this paper is concerned with Spain's long-term national variation (between 1900 and 2006). The changing pattern of double and triple deliveries was analyzed using data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE). Twinning rates in Spain are low in comparison to those of equivalent periods in other countries, and the minimum rates correspond to the 1980s decade. Results were interpreted by taking into account the influence of age at maternity and reproductive variation up to 1990. A good fit between observed and predicted rates was obtained after the application of models, which besides maternal age and parity, include their interaction. Regarding territorial variability, the values corresponding to southern, northern and insular Spanish provinces are consistent with an earlier reduction of the crude birth rate in the north-east regions and latter in the southern regions and the Canary Islands.
The mating pattern in a population determines the next generation gene pool and therefore its genetic structure. Besides socio-cultural and geographic factors, political barriers may influence the formation of couples. The present paper studies how the change of national border affected the mating pattern of Olivenza in Badajoz Province (Spain), which experienced a change of domain from Portugal to Spain in 1801. For the period analysed (1750–1850), 954 Catholic marriage records were transcribed. Data were sorted by decades in order to make a temporal study possible and analysed by means of diversity and repeated-pairs of surnames. Following the change of border the mating pattern modified. Coinciding with a larger number of mixed marriages with Spaniards, there was a progressive rise in the diversity of surnames. From 1811 to 1820 the analysis of repeated-pairs of surnames indicates the existence of preferential matings within Spanish and Portuguese lineages. After 1821 the above pattern became less clear due to the disappearance of the Spanish–Portuguese restrictions on choice of mate.
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