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Eales retinopathy associates peripheral retinal changes often described as "vasculitis", peripheral capillary nonperfusion (retinal ischemia), and retinal or optic nerve neovascularization (secondary to chronic retinal ischemia) resulting in vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Some of the syndromes are associated with lesions of the central nervous system, explaining why Eales retinopathy is considered an uncommon cause of stroke. It should be interpreted with caution because other entities may be the cause of the retinopathy and the central nervous system lesions. Various neurologic findings have been reported, including meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral vasculitis, brain infarctions and hemorrhages, cerebral venous thrombosis, and white matter diseases. The treatment of the retinopathy is limited to stimulating regression of neovascularization by applying laser photocoagulation to the nonperfused retina. Vitrectomy is indicated for nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage, extensive retinal neovascularization, epiretinal membrane, and traction retinal detachment.