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Our objective was to determine the frequency of zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus coinfection and describe the mortality cases that occurred during the epidemiologic surveillance of the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. We analysed all cases of suspected ZIKV infection that were reported to the National Institute of Health (October 2015–December 2016). DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV RNA were detected in serum or tissue samples using polymerase chain reaction assay. Medical records of the fatal cases were reviewed. We identified that 23 871 samples were processed. The frequency of viral agents was 439 (1.84%) for DENV, 257 (1.07%) for CHIKV and 10118 (42.38%) for ZIKV. Thirty-four (0.14%) cases of coinfection were identified. The CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was present in 28 cases (82.3%), DENV–CHIKV in three (8.8%) and DENV–ZIKV in three (8.8%). Seven (20.6%) coinfection cases were fatal (two DENV–CHIKV cases and five CHIKV–ZIKV cases). Two cases were foetal deaths and the others were related to neurological syndrome and sepsis. In conclusion, the frequency of arbovirus coinfection during epidemic of ZIKV was low, and CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was the most common. Mortality was high among coinfection patients. The role of each virus in the mortality cases of coinfection warrants further studies.
In this paper we review the design and development of a 100 J, 10 Hz nanosecond pulsed laser, codenamed DiPOLE100X, being built at the Central Laser Facility (CLF). This 1 kW average power diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) is based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design, which includes two cryogenic gas cooled amplifier stages based on DiPOLE multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology developed at the CLF. The laser will produce pulses between 2 and 15 ns in duration with precise, arbitrarily selectable shapes, at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz, allowing real-time shape optimization for compression experiments. Once completed, the laser will be delivered to the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility in Germany as a UK-funded contribution in kind, where it will be used to study extreme states of matter at the High Energy Density (HED) instrument.
Physical conditions and chemical abundances of two H II regions and a planetary nebula in the dIrr galaxy Leo A are presented. These determinations were performed using the direct method (Te measured) and the ONS method. We also constructed photoionization models for the three nebulae to determine the abundances and to analyse the ionizing stars. The O abundance was determined to be 12+log(O/H) = 7.4±0.2 in all cases.
Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of mango and citrus in Mexico. Here, we report the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin strain MAAP1 on mortality and food consumption in A. ludens adults. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions at 26 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5% RH and 12:12 photoperiod. To assess pathogenicity and sublethal effects, we sprayed flies with 1 × 109 conidia/ml and 1 × 106 conidia/ml solutions, respectively. Food consumption was measured by providing known amounts of food through capillary tubes to caged flies. We found that M. anisopliae was highly virulent to A. ludens, causing 92.3 ± 0.62% mortality at day 13 post-exposure. Interestingly, food consumption reduced by 17% in flies exposed to the fungus. These results support the implementation of M. anisopliae within current strategies used for the integrated pest management of A. ludens.
CHD is becoming an increasing priority worldwide, as it is one of the main causes of death in low- and middle-income countries lately. This study aims to evaluate the association between beverage consumption patterns and the risk of CHD among Mexican adult population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 6640 adults participating in the Health Workers’ Cohort Study. Factor analysis was performed to identify beverage patterns using sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms to estimate CHD risk. The prevalence of moderate to high CHD risk was 17·8 %. We identified four major beverage consumption patterns, which were categorised as alcohol, coffee/tea, soft drinks and low-fat milk. We observed a lower risk of CHD (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·80; and OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·79, respectively) among participants in the upper quintile of alcohol or low-fat milk consumption compared with those in the bottom quintile. In contrast, a higher consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with CHD risk (OR=1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·20) when compared with other extreme quintiles. Finally, coffee/tea consumption was not significantly associated with CHD risk. Our findings suggest that a beverage pattern characterised by a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD among the Mexican adult population, whereas patterns of moderate alcohol intake and low-fat milk may be associated with a reduced risk.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with epilepsy often combine their antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with complementary medicine (CM). They use CM to treat their symptoms of comorbidities disorder, to reduce the side effect of the AEDs or trying to achieve better control of their seizures. However, the inconsistent patters of the use of CM among countries have been attributed to cultural and socio-economic factors and limited studies have explored biological factors. The aim of this study is to determinate whether or not there is an association between having genetic polymorphisms on candidate pharmacogenes for drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and the use CM among patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this cross-sectional study, patients will be recruited in the Epilepsy Clinic in the Medical Science Campus of University of Puerto Rico and in private Neurology clinics. To participate in this study, patients need to have both parents of Puerto Rican origin to be defined as Puerto Rican and have a diagnosis of DRE, defined as persistent seizures after at least 2 good trials of the proper drugs at the right dose. After the patient sign, the inform consent, a buccal swap will be collected, and the patient will complete a questionnaire. In the questionnaire, the patient will do a self-report about the use of CM (including natural products, meditation, yoga, and others), frequency of use and socio-economic information. Polymorphisms for CYP 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, or 1A2 will be determined using TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Data analysis will include descriptive statistical, χ2 and ANOVA test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expected to determine the frequency distribution of functional polymorphisms on CYPs among patients with DRE who are either using CM and AEDs or standard care (AEDs). Quantified the use of CM and ascertain if there is an association with the CYPs polymorphisms. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study is novel, because we will use an objective test, pharmacogenetics approach to rule out biological factors associated with the use of Complementary Medicine by patients’ DRE. The study will provide evidence for prospective study using specifics Complementary Medicine guiding by genotyping.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to measure the association of CYP2C19 (*1-*8,*17), ABCB1(C3435T; rs1045642), PON1 (p.Q192R; rs662), and B4GALT2 (c.909 C>T and c.366 G>C) gene polymorphisms in the Caribbean Hispanic population with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients of Caribbean Hispanic ethnicity from all geographic regions of the Island of Puerto Rico, male and female, aged >21 will be recruited. Cases will consist of patients receiving a daily clopidogrel dose of 75 mg following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who experience a MACE within the first year of treatment. Control study patients must have received clopidogrel 75 mg daily for a minimum of 1 year without experiencing MACE. Genomic DNA samples will be genotyped to determine the frequency distribution of major CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2 gene polymorphisms. Observed frequencies will be compared with other reported populations. An association study will be performed between genetic variables and MACE and a multivariable logistic regression model (additive) will be constructed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate finding a significant association between major genetic determinants of clopidogrel response and MACE where cases with MACE will carry higher frequency of CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: As the range of multiloci allelic combinations in admixed Caribbean Hispanics is higher than in other populations due to its unique 500-year history of genomic admixture, a wide spectrum of genetic variances is expected to be present in the study population. Determining the prevalence and effect of CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2 polymorphisms holds the potential to personalize anti-platelet treatment for Caribbean Hispanic patients requiring treatment after ACS.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Hispanic patients on clopidogrel therapy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A cross-sectional pilot study was performed in 58 Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with any type of vascular disease and actively receiving a maintenance dose of clopidogrel for at least 7 days. The study population was divided into 2 groups: Group I with non-high on-treatment platelet reactivity (TPR); Group II with high TPR. To determine the platelet function, P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) were obtained by VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay (Accumetrics, USA). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We studied a heterogeneous cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (30%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (3%), and stroke (3%) on clopidogrel therapy for secondary prevention of thromboembolic events. The mean TPR was 205±49 PRU (range: 61–304), with a prevalence of 28% patients with high TPR (PRU≥230). No significant clinical differences were found between the non-high TPR and high-TPR groups (p>0.05). However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that both diabetes mellitus (OR=7.5; CI: 1.01–51.9) and proton-pump inhibitors (OR=13.6; CI: 1.3–142.0) were independently correlated with high TPR (p<0.05) after adjusting for other clinical variables. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results provide new insight into the importance of clinical characteristics on platelet reactivity in this Caribbean population. Further studies are warranted to determine whether important clopidogrel pharmacogenes are related with platelet function in Hispanics, as well as the role of TPR in guiding antiplatelet therapy and predicting future adverse cardiovascular events in this population.
Despite their importance as freshwater reservoirs for downstream river systems, few glaciers in central Chile have been comprehensively surveyed. This study presents ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and field-based observations for characterizing the englacial and basal conditions of Glaciar Olivares Alfa (33°110 S, 70°130 W), central Chilean Andes. Using a 50 MHz radar mounted onto a helicopter platform, data were collected covering large portions of the glacier accumulation and ablation zones. The radar data revealed boundaries of a temperate-ice layer at the base of the eastern body of Glaciar Olivares Alfa which appears to be covered by colder ice that extends throughout large parts of the glacier. The thickness of the temperate ice layer is highly variable across the glacier, being on average 40% of the total ice thickness. Radar data analyses reveal regions of cold ice at the bottom/base of the glacier and also patterns of highly saturated sediments beneath the glacier. Using GPR data, this study represents the most exhaustive analysis of glacier ice structure performed in the central Chilean Andes. The results will enable improved estimations of the glacier’s mass balance and ice dynamics, helping us to understand its further development and its impact on water availability.
Meals are an important source of food intake, contributing to body weight and health status. Previous studies have examined the relationship between isolated mealtime behaviours and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the influence over time of ten interrelated mealtime habits on the risk of developing the MetS and insulin resistance (IR) among Mexican adults. We conducted a prospective cohort study with a sample of 956 health workers. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale is based on four mealtime situations (availability of time to eat, distractions while eating, environmental and social context of eating, and familiar or cultural eating habits), which were used to assess the participants’ MHQ at the baseline (2004–2006) and follow-up (2010–2012) evaluations. The MetS was assessed using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IR was defined using the homoeostasis model assessment. Crude and adjusted relative risks were calculated to estimate the relationship between MHQ and the risk of developing the MetS or IR. Participants classified in the lower MHQ category had an 8·8 (95 % CI 3·1, 25) and 11·1 (95 % CI 3·4, 36·1) times greater risk of developing the MetS (using the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively), and an 11·2 times (95 % CI 3·9, 31·5) greater likelihood of developing IR, compared with those in the higher MHQ group. This prospective study reveals that individuals who engaged in more undesirable than recommended mealtime behaviours had a >10-fold risk of developing the MetS or IR.
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8–13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19·8 and 19·1 %, respectively. FTO, MC4R and TMEM18 risk allele frequency was 17, 9·8 and 89·5 %, respectively. A significant association between FTO homozygous and MC4R heterozygous risk alleles and obesity was found (OR 3·9; 95 % CI 1·46, 10·22, and OR 2·1; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·71; respectively). The FTO heterozygous subjects showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, compared with the homozygous for the ancestral allele subjects. These results remain significant after considering adiposity as a covariate. The FTO and MC4R genotypes were not significantly associated with total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentration. No association was found between TMEM18 risk allele and obesity and/or metabolic alterations. Our results show that, in addition to a higher BMI, there is also an association of the risk genotype with blood pressure in the presence of the FTO risk genotype. The possible presence of a risk genotype in obese children must be considered to offer a more comprehensive therapeutic approach in order to delay and/or prevent the development of chronic diseases.
The peroxyformic process is based on the action of a carboxylic acid (mainly formic acid) and the corresponding peroxyacid. The influences of processing time (60–180 min), formic acid concentration (80–95%), temperature (60–80°C), and hydrogen peroxide concentration (2–4%) on peroxyformic pulping of agave leaves were studied by surface response methodology using a face-centered factorial design. Empirical models were obtained for the prediction of yield, κ number (KN) and pulp viscosity as functions of the aforementioned variables. Mathematical optimization enabled us to select a set of operational variables that produced the best fractionation of the material with the following results: pulp yield (26.9%), KN (3.6), and pulp viscosity (777 mL/g). Furthermore, this work allowed the description and evaluation of changes to the agave fibers during the fractionation process using different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, and provided a comprehensive and qualitative view of the phenomena occurring in the delignification of agave fibers. The use of confocal and scanning electron microscopy provided a detailed understanding of the microstructural changes to the lignin and cellulose in the fibers throughout the process, whereas Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that cellulose in the pulp after treatment was mainly of type I.
To prospectively examine the extent to which mealtime habits influences the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults.
We performed a prospective cohort study. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale was used for assessing participants’ MHQ; the outcomes of interest were gain ≥5 % of body weight, developing overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, after 7 years of follow-up. In order to estimate the independent effect of MHQ on anthropometric indicators, generalized linear models were computed to obtain adjusted relative risks (95 % CI).
The state of Morelos, Mexico.
Mexican adults (n 837) aged 18–70 years participating in a cohort study.
Compared with participants classified in the higher MHQ category, individuals in the middle and lower MHQ groups had a 4·1 (2·5, 6·7) and 6·2 (3·9, 9·7) fold greater risk of gain ≥5 % of body weight, respectively; 6·6 (2·8, 15·5) and 8·6 (3·7, 19·8) fold greater risk of becoming overweight/obese, respectively; and 3·8 (2·0, 7·3) and 5·3 (2·8, 9·8) fold greater risk of developing abdominal obesity, respectively.
This study provides evidence about the influence of a set of mealtime habits on obesity indicators, showing that greater adherence to unadvisable mealtime habits increases the risk of developing unhealthy anthropometric indicators. Since the meal is one of the most important sources of food intake, and consequently weight status, the MHQ scale can be a useful population tool to predict weight gain and obesity.
Two different crystalline structures corresponding to a zinc adipate and a zinc succinate were determined combining: X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and true densities experiments. The zinc succinate crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space-group Cccm with unit-cell parameters a = 4.792(1) Å, b = 21.204(6) Å, c = 6.691(2) Å, V = 679.8(3) Å3, and Z = 8. Zinc adipate crystal structure was refined from the laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c with unit-cell parameters, a = 16.2037(17)Å, b = 4.7810(2)Å, c = 9.2692(6)Å, β = 90.329(3)°, V = 718.07(9) Å3, and Z = 4. The thermal expansion of it was estimated in 5.40 × 10−5 K−1. This contribution is a step on the way to systematize the regularities in the coordination diversity between linear dicarboxylates and transition metal–inorganic buildings units of metal–organic frameworks.
Integration between phylogenetic systematics and paleontological data has proved to be an effective method for identifying periods that lack fossil evidence in the evolutionary history of clades. In this study we aim to analyze whether there is any correlation between various ecomorphological variables and the duration of these underrepresented portions of lineages, which we call ghost lineages for simplicity, in ruminants. Analyses within phylogenetic (Generalized Estimating Equations) and non-phylogenetic (ANOVAs and Pearson correlations) frameworks were performed on the whole phylogeny of this suborder of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia). This is the first time ghost lineages are focused in this way. To test the robustness of our data, we compared the magnitude of ghost lineages among different continents and among phylogenies pruned at different ages (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 Ma). Differences in mean ghost lineage were not significantly related to either geographic or temporal factors. Our results indicate that the proportion of the known fossil record in ruminants appears to be influenced by the preservation potential of the bone remains in different environments. Furthermore, large geographical ranges of species increase the likelihood of preservation.
In this work, the effect of three principal and independent parameters of Atmospheric Plasma Spray on the properties of coatings deposited using mixtures of commercial powders of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) was studied. The results of this work are used for special applications on turbomachinery components such as wear protection in sliding seals and in steam valves for turbines, chemical protection for centrifugal compressor members, and special seal applications.
The design of experiments (DoE) technique has proved to be very useful to study the influence factors and optimization. Pierlot et al.  demonstrated that the application of the Hadamard and two factorial design techniques are useful for the optimization of thermal spray processes. An example of the application of the DoE is the one mentioned by Murugan et al. . In their work, a factorial design was used to study the interactions between gas flow, oxygen flow, powder rate and spray distance on the percentage of porosity and hardness of TiO2 - Cr2O3 composite coatings generated by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel.
The ½ fractional two-level factorial DoE technique was used to analyze and optimize the Atmospheric Plasma Spray process parameters. In the current research, experiments were conducted varying the deposition velocity, gas flow and stand-off distance. The effect of these process variables were evaluated by thickness, hardness and microstructure analysis. In this study, an empirical relationship between process variables and response parameters was developed. The entire relationship was made using the results of the DoE.
Lately, the investigations of binders from ternary system Portland cement (PC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and calcium sulfate (
), have gone through a larger stage of development due to their special properties such as fast setting and rapid hardening, early strength, non-efflorescence, etc. These special properties are ensured by the binder’s microstructure, developed through hydration processes and reactions between hydrate components, which allows us to use them in special environments (aggressive environments with very low or very high level of pH, environments with high temperature, etc.). The binders from this system were simply named “dry mortars”, and provide the final user with an easy processing. In order to explain the mechanical behavior of the specimens exposed in normal curing conditions (T = 20 ± 2 °C and R.H. ≈ 95%), and with different percentages of calcium sulfate (added as hemihydrate or anhydrite), research on the microstructure of the hardened system was performed using SEM and XRD investigation techniques. The analyses have been performed on the binder pastes, hydrated for 1 and 28 days. The tests results showed that the specimen with anhydrous
content had the best mechanical behavior.