To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
The paper shows the connections between some importance indices for the components in an engineering coherent system and the performance of the system obtained when a redundancy mechanism is applied to a specific component. A copula approach is used to model the dependency among the components. This approach includes the popular case of independent components. Under some assumptions, it is proved that if component i is more important than component j, then the system obtained by applying a redundancy procedure to the ith component is better, under different stochastic criteria, than that obtained with the jth component. These results can be applied to several redundancy mechanisms. A new importance index is defined to study active redundancies. Some illustrative examples are provided.
We have investigated the adsorption and dissociation of water and its co-adsorption with CO on atomically defined cobalt oxide nanoislands on Pt(111). The CoO islands were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions by reactive deposition of Co metal in oxygen atmosphere. The island structure was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), showing that the nanoislands consist of a CoO bilayer and are regularly shaped with island edges that are mainly terminated by Co2+ ions. D2O was dosed in UHV onto the CoO islands on Pt(111) after pre-saturation with CO. D2O dissociation was monitored in situ by isothermal and temperature programmed infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Isotopic exchange experiments were performed with H2O, D2O, and D218O to elucidate the nature of the hydroxyl groups. Three principal types of OD species are identified: (i) isolated OD at the edges of the CoO islands (Co-OeD), (ii) OD groups within larger hydroxylated areas on the CoO islands (Co-OcD), and (iii) isolated OD groups on the CoO terraces (Co-OtD). At 400 K, water adsorbs dissociatively on the CoO islands and forms isolated hydroxyl species (Co-OeD) at the island edges only. At room temperature (300 K), the coverage of hydroxyl groups increases rapidly, in line with the water-assisted hydroxylation reaction suggested previously. Adsorption experiments with D218O suggest that two equivalent groups are formed from one water molecule after dissociation at island edges, leading to the formation of larger hydroxylated areas on the CoO islands (Co-OcD) and, in addition, isolated OD species on the CoO terraces (Co-OtD). While the initial step of D2O dissociation is facile, the formation of larger hydroxylated areas is a slow and irreversible process. At 200 K, the formation of hydroxylated areas is accompanied by the co-adsorption of molecular water. The hydroxyl groups on the CoO islands are shown to interact with the CO preadsorbed on the CoO/Pt(111) model system. In particular, we observe a new CO species, stabilized by OD groups on the CoO islands, which adsorbs much stronger than CO on the OD-free CoO surface.
Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) is a screening test that was recently validated for diagnosing dementia. Since it assesses attention, language, memory, fluency, and visuospatial function separately, it may also be useful for general neuropsychological assessments. The aim of this study was to analyze the tool's ability to detect early stages of Alzheimer's disease and to examine the correlation between ACE-III scores and scores on standardized neuropsychological tests.
Our study included 200 participants categorized as follows: 25 healthy controls, 48 individuals with subjective memory complaints, 47 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 47 mild Alzheimer's disease, and 33 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.
The ACE-III memory and language domains were highly correlated with the neuropsychological tests specific to those domains (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.806 for total delayed recall on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test vs. 0.744 on the Boston Naming Test). ACE-III scores discriminated between controls and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AUC: 0.906), and between controls and patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AUC: 0.978).
Our results suggest that ACE-III is a useful neuropsychological test for assessing the cognitive domains of attention, language, memory, and visuospatial function. It also enables detection of Alzheimer's disease in early stages.
A bioeconomic model is used to estimate how managing glyphosate resistance to horseweed affects short- and long-run profits in corn, soybean, and corn-soybean rotation systems. Model results found that resistance management reduces profits in the first year of implementation, but increases profits in the second and subsequent 18 yr. In all three systems, long run gains begin to outweigh short-run costs (and resistance management “pays for itself”) by the second year. Over a 20-yr horizon, the estimated annual average profit advantage from managing resistance exceeded $158 ha–1 ($64/acre) for corn, $137 ha–1 ($55/acre) for corn-soybean, and $55 ha–1 ($22/acre) for soybean. Seed immigration from a neighbor's field can reduce these gains, but this reduction is negligible if the neighbor also practices resistance management. If the neighbor did not manage resistance, however, the grower's estimated annual profit advantage fell to roughly $123 ha–1 ($50/acre) for corn, $60 ha–1 ($24/acre) for the corn-soybean rotation, and virtually zero for soybean. Methods applied in this study identify corn and corn-soybean rotations as cases where resistance management “pays for itself' quickly and significantly, even if the neighbor does not manage resistance. Continuous soybean presents a more challenging case that may require additional programs and incentives to encourage collective resistance management among growers. Even for continuous soybean, however, joint grower–neighbor resistance management can pay for itself within 2 yr.
The use of stable carbon isotopes as dietary tracers is an application that is widening its scope within the fields of ecology and paleoecology. Although hair is potentially one of the most favorable animal tissues for isotopic measurement for dietary studies, this tissue is rarely included in research works. This may be due to the fact that many aspects related to hair tissue are not fully understood, especially in the case of wild animals whose diets consist of plants with contrasting 13C/12C ratios, their abundance depending on seasonality. The present isotopic study of hair from animals inhabiting the Andes in northwestern Argentina, at heights ranging from 3500 to about 5000 m above sea level (asl) shows that 1) δ13C values measured on hair from herbivores with a mixed and isotopically contrasting diet, and from their carnivorous predators, differ in their respective trophic levels, 2) in primary consumers, different types of hair from the same individual have different δ13C values, whereas hair values are homogeneous in carnivores, and 3) some types of hair from rodents, such as whiskers, show δ13C values similar to those of less metabolically active tissues such as bone collagen.
Integration between phylogenetic systematics and paleontological data has proved to be an effective method for identifying periods that lack fossil evidence in the evolutionary history of clades. In this study we aim to analyze whether there is any correlation between various ecomorphological variables and the duration of these underrepresented portions of lineages, which we call ghost lineages for simplicity, in ruminants. Analyses within phylogenetic (Generalized Estimating Equations) and non-phylogenetic (ANOVAs and Pearson correlations) frameworks were performed on the whole phylogeny of this suborder of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia). This is the first time ghost lineages are focused in this way. To test the robustness of our data, we compared the magnitude of ghost lineages among different continents and among phylogenies pruned at different ages (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 Ma). Differences in mean ghost lineage were not significantly related to either geographic or temporal factors. Our results indicate that the proportion of the known fossil record in ruminants appears to be influenced by the preservation potential of the bone remains in different environments. Furthermore, large geographical ranges of species increase the likelihood of preservation.
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
A brooding Octopus vulgaris female was monitored for 128 days in her natural habitat. The main reproductive events and embryonic development in relation to the temperature inside the spawning den, which was recorded by long-battery-life mini-data loggers, are described in the wild. The den temperature ranged from 12.9 to 19.3°C. The total number of egg strings was 160, and the total number of eggs spawned ranged between 139,040 and 241,760 (mean 190,400). The brooding period, the egg laying interval and the duration of the hatching course lasted 128, 35 and 43 days, respectively. Both egg laying and hatching were intermittent processes. The time taken for embryonic development was variable (85–128 d) and depended on the laying date, temperature and position of the string in the egg cluster and the position of the egg in the egg string. The first hatching observed occurred after a progressive and gradual increase of the temperature from 14.9 to 19.3°C. The 280 min of video recordings taken by scuba divers showed that several times, this female opened and closed a small window in the obstructions of the den entrance to facilitate a way out for the hatchling batches.
For many years, the progress in agent-oriented development has focused on tools and methods for particular development phases. This has not been enough for the industry to accept agent technology as we expected. Our hypothesis is that the Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) community has not recognized the kind of development methods that industry actually demands. We propose to analyze this hypothesis starting with a more precise definition of what an AOSE methodology should be. This definition is the first step for a review of the current progress of an illustrative selection of methodologies, looking for missing elements and future lines of improvement. The result is an account of how well the AOSE community is meeting the software lifecycle needs. It can be advanced that AOSE methodologies are far from providing all the answers industry requires and that effort has grounded mainly in requirements, design, and implementation phases.
Mental disorders in the elderly are common, with a 12-month prevalence in the community ranging from 8.54% to 26.4%. Unfortunately, many mental disorders are unrecognized, untreated, and associated with poor health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of mental disorders in the elderly primary care (PC) population and its associated factors by age groups.
Cross-sectional survey, conducted in 77 PC centers in Catalonia (Spain), 1,192 patients over 65 years old. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed through face-to-face evaluations using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version (SCID-I-RV) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); chronic physical conditions were noted using a checklist; and disability through the Sheehan Disability Scales (SDS).
Nearly 20% of participants had a mental disorder in the previous 12 months. Anxiety disorders were the most frequent, (10.9%) (95% CI = 8.2–14.4), followed by mood disorders (7.4%) (95% CI = 5.7–9.5). Being female, greater perceived stress and having mental health/emotional problems as the main reason for consultation were associated with the presence of any mental disorder. There were no differences in prevalence across age groups. Somatic comorbidity was not associated with the presence of mental disorders.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent among the elderly in PC in Spain. Efforts are needed to develop strategies to reduce this prevalence and improve the well-being of the elderly. Based on our results, we thought it might be useful to assess perceived stress regularly in PC, focusing on people who consult for emotional distress, or that have greater perceived stress.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have proven to be materials with great potential for the construction of biosensors. Development of fast, simple, and low cost biosensors to follow reactions in bioprocesses, or to detect food contaminants such as toxins, chemical compounds, and microorganisms, is presently an important research topic. This report includes microscopy and spectroscopy to characterize raw and chemically modified multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with the intention of using them as the active transducer in bioprocessing sensors. MWCNT were simultaneously purified and functionalized by an acid mixture involving HNO3–H2SO4 and amyloglucosidase attached onto the chemically modified MWCNT surface. A 49.0% decrease in its enzymatic activity was observed. Raw, purified, and enzyme-modified MWCNTs were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These studies confirmed purification and functionalization of the CNTs. Finally, cyclic voltammetry electrochemistry was used for electrical characterization of CNTs, which showed promising results that can be useful for construction of electrochemical biosensors applied to biological areas.
This study examines the impact of adopting Bt corn on farm profits, yields, and insecticide use. The study employs an econometric model that corrects for self-selection and simultaneity. The model is estimated using nationwide farm-level survey data for 2005. Regression analysis confirms that Bt adoption is associated with increased variable profits, yields, and seed demand. However, the results of this analysis suggest that Bt adoption is not significantly related to insecticide use. This result may be due to the fact that insect infestation levels were lower in 2005 than they were in previous years.
Asphalt bitumens are complex colloidal systems of high viscosity and complex behavior, which are mainly used for making asphalt concrete for road surfaces. Thermal and rheological characterizations are needed to understand their complex behavior, particularly at the processing stage. Prediction of properties at short and long observation times is usually performed through time-temperature superposition (TTS) models, which make use of some calculated shift factors. The influence of crystallization-like transformation processes on the validity of these shift factors is investigated here by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). Four asphalt emulsions are considered in this work, each one with a specific transformation behavior. The structure-properties relationships are explained on the basis of the transformation profiles and rheological data.
Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) is one of the most studied biopolymers nowadays. Due to its good performance, it constitutes an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. It was largely studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-modulated DSC. Nevertheless, there is an ongoing debate of what happens at the overlapping melting processes. In the present work, the experimental setups are discussed. Different modulation conditions are proposed for the study of the glass transition, cold crystallization, and the two reported melting processes. Finally, the experimental results allowed to measure the heat capacity change at the cold crystallization and a correct interpretation of what happens at the reported double melting peak of PLLA, which involves the existence of three crystalline structures.