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Landscape evolution studies enable us to understand site formation processes affecting past hunter-gatherer settlements. This work presents a landscape reconstruction of Roca dels Bous site (RB), which is a reference site for the Late Mousterian occupation of the incised valleys of the southeastern Pyrenees. For this purpose, we combined geomorphological studies, stratigraphic descriptions, new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence datasets, statistical methods, and geophysical surveys. RB formed by gravitational processes induced by fluvial undermining of the Segre River during changing late Pleistocene climatic conditions. Geomorphological and chronological data combined with fluvial age-incision models suggest that, during Late Mousterian occupation, RB was located very near the Segre floodplain level and closer to water and raw material natural resources than at present. The accumulation of gravitational deposits associated with the archaeological levels occurred at rates of 0.16–0.44 m ka-1, between 55 and 47 ka, coinciding with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3). More detailed comparison with available climatic curves suggests that the dated RB layers were potentially deposited during cold phases within MIS3. This work provides new landscape-based evidence to examine the paleoenvironmental context of Neanderthal presence in the southeastern Pre-Pyrenees, an important region in the debate regarding Neanderthal demise in Western Europe around 40 ka.
Living standards capabilities are an important determinant of healthy ageing. The Living Standards Capabilities for Elders scale (LSCAPE) is the main instrument available to assess living standards capabilities among older adults based on Sen's Capability Approach. The objectives of this study were: (a) to adapt and validate LSCAPE for use in the Spanish population; (b) to examine the dimensionality, validity and reliability; and (c) to establish the convergent validity of LSCAPE using self-reported measures of quality of life and income. The LSCAPE was administered to 441 Spanish seniors aged 65 and over. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to analyse the dimensionality, validity and reliability. Discriminant and convergent validity of the model were assessed using Average Variance Extracted (AVE). Reliability was shown by Composite Reliability (CR) and Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was tested by correlating the LSCAPE scales and sub-scales with the Short-form Health Survey (SF-12) sub-scales. CFA showed that the LSCAPE Six-factor Model fits well to the data, showing Standardised Root Mean Square Residual < 0.09 (0.084), Comparative Fit Index and Tucker–Lewis Index > 0.9 (0.925 and 0.917, respectively). LSCAPE showed also good reliability (CR indices > 0.7) and validity (AVE > 0.5) measures. Finally, LSCAPE had moderate to strong associations with SF-12 sub-scales (>0.6) and a moderate relationship with income (>0.3). Thus, LSCAPE has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument in measuring living standards capabilities among the Spanish older population.
Peripheral gene expression of several molecular pathways has been studied in major depressive disorder (MDD) with promising results. We sought to investigate some of these genes in a treatment-free Latino sample of Mexican descent.
Material and Methods:
The sample consisted of 50 MDD treatment-free cases and 50 sex and age-matched controls. Gene expression of candidate genes of neuroplasticity (BDNF, p11, and VGF), inflammation (IL1A, IL1B, IL4, IL6, IL7, IL8, IL10, MIF, and TNFA), the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (TCF7L2, APC, and GSK3B), and mTOR, was compared in cases and controls. RNA was obtained from blood samples. We used bivariate analyses to compare subjects versus control mean mRNA quantification of target genes and lineal regression modelling to test for effects of age and body mass index on gene expression.
Most subjects were female (66%) with a mean age of 26.7 (SD 7.9) years. Only GSK3B was differentially expressed between cases and controls at a statistically significant level (p = 0.048). TCF7L-2 showed the highest number of correlations with MDD-related traits, yet these were modest in size.
GSK3B encodes a moderator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. It has a role in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection, depression, and other psychiatric phenotypes. We found that adding population diversity has the potential to elicit distinct peripheral gene expression markers in MDD and MDD-related traits. However, our results should only be considered as hypothesis-generating research that merits further replication in larger cohorts of similar ancestry.
Parasitological analysis of coprolites has allowed exploring ecological relationships in ancient times. Ancient DNA analysis contributes to the identification of coprolites and their parasites. Pleistocene mammalian carnivore coprolites were recovered from paleontological and archaeological site Peñas de las Trampas 1.1 in the southern Puna of Argentina. With the aim of exploring ancient ecological relationships, parasitological analysis was performed to one of them, dated to 16 573–17 002 calibrated years BP, with 95.4% probability. Parasite eggs attributed to Toxascaris sp. by morphological characters were isolated. DNA of coprolite and eggs was extracted to molecular identification. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed the zoological origin of the coprolite as Puma concolor and that of parasite eggs as Toxascaris leonina. This is the oldest molecular parasite record worldwide, and it supports the presence of this parasite since the Pleistocene in America. These findings have implications for the biogeographic history of parasites and for the natural history of the region.
Recent excavations at the Early–Middle Formative period site of Altica in the southern piedmont of the Teotihuacan Valley, Mexico, provide evidence for early agriculture and plant use in a rural community in the northern Basin of Mexico. In the Basin of Mexico, settled agricultural communities were present in the southern sector of the region from at least 1200 cal b.c. Initial expansion into the semiarid northern sector of the Basin, however, appears to have taken place towards the end of the Early Formative, during the transition to the Middle Formative when agricultural economies based on maize cultivation became firmly established, setting the scene for increased population density and concomitant social complexity.
Altica is currently the only community in the Teotihuacan Valley spanning this transitional period that has survived in the face of intensive changes in land use over the last three millennia. Macro- and microbotanical evidence recovered from radiocarbon-dated excavated contexts at Altica provide evidence for maize cultivation and suggest a subsistence economy in transition, prior to the establishment of intensive dependence upon a broader range of domesticated and cultivated plants.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries and trunk are rare entities. The Waterston shunt is a palliative procedure for children with cyanotic CHD due to obstruction of the pulmonary outflow. Described complications are distortion of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary arterial hypertension. We report a patient with a giant right pulmonary artery aneurysm in relation to a Waterston shunt.
The paper shows the connections between some importance indices for the components in an engineering coherent system and the performance of the system obtained when a redundancy mechanism is applied to a specific component. A copula approach is used to model the dependency among the components. This approach includes the popular case of independent components. Under some assumptions, it is proved that if component i is more important than component j, then the system obtained by applying a redundancy procedure to the ith component is better, under different stochastic criteria, than that obtained with the jth component. These results can be applied to several redundancy mechanisms. A new importance index is defined to study active redundancies. Some illustrative examples are provided.
Our objective was to determine the frequency of zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus coinfection and describe the mortality cases that occurred during the epidemiologic surveillance of the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. We analysed all cases of suspected ZIKV infection that were reported to the National Institute of Health (October 2015–December 2016). DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV RNA were detected in serum or tissue samples using polymerase chain reaction assay. Medical records of the fatal cases were reviewed. We identified that 23 871 samples were processed. The frequency of viral agents was 439 (1.84%) for DENV, 257 (1.07%) for CHIKV and 10118 (42.38%) for ZIKV. Thirty-four (0.14%) cases of coinfection were identified. The CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was present in 28 cases (82.3%), DENV–CHIKV in three (8.8%) and DENV–ZIKV in three (8.8%). Seven (20.6%) coinfection cases were fatal (two DENV–CHIKV cases and five CHIKV–ZIKV cases). Two cases were foetal deaths and the others were related to neurological syndrome and sepsis. In conclusion, the frequency of arbovirus coinfection during epidemic of ZIKV was low, and CHIKV–ZIKV coinfection was the most common. Mortality was high among coinfection patients. The role of each virus in the mortality cases of coinfection warrants further studies.
Over the centuries, Spanish historiography has attached great importance to the wars that Octavian launched at the start of the last third of the 1st c. B.C. against the population in the north of the Iberian peninsula. In this way he intended to bring an end to the long conquest of Iberia that had begun two centuries earlier in the hegemonic struggle with Carthage. Although the wars previously attracted the attention of European scholars, today they play little part in the historiography of the Early Roman Empire and even less in the biographies of Augustus, who suffered some of his worst military fortunes in this war, putting his very life in danger (Suet., Aug. 29.3 and 81.1; Hor., Carm. 3.14; Dio 53.25.5-7; Oros. 6.21.4). Even Departments of Ancient History in Spanish universities have failed to progress beyond well-worn exegesis of the written sources. This is because until just two decades ago all the information came from two historical sources: Florus and Orosius, on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, on the other (the relevant books of Livy being lost). Although they stress the importance of the conflict, these sources are excessively laconic; they have also been subjected to erudite speculations about place-names that have turned the military campaigns into a series of historiographic fictions.1
Monitoring the effectiveness of knee and hip arthroplasties could be useful at the clinical, economic, and patient levels. In Catalonia, there is currently no systematic monitoring of the different prostheses available. The aims of this study were to propose an approach for the systematic identification of knee and hip prostheses with the highest revision rates, and to identify those with the poorest outcomes.
Data recorded from January 2005 to December 2016 were considered from 53 out of the 61 public hospitals in Catalonia included in the Catalonian Arthroplasty Register (RACat). Specific prostheses were classified by joint, type, fixation, and, in total hip prostheses, the bearing surface. Prostheses with the worst outcomes were identified using a three-step approach, based on previous literature: (i) screening using Poisson models; (ii) comparison of prostheses using adjusted Cox models; and (iii) consensus-based review by a panel of orthopedic surgeons to detect possible sources of bias. After this process, selected prostheses were provisionally labeled as having the poorest outcomes. This process will be repeated periodically within the RACat to definitively classify the prostheses.
After first two steps, ten knee prostheses and eight hip prostheses were identified. After the panel discussion (third step), one knee and one hip prosthesis were excluded from the final list. The knee prosthesis was excluded because it was a unicompartmental implant, while the hip prosthesis was excluded because it was a monoblock implant. Finally, nine knee prostheses and seven hip prostheses were provisionally identified as having the worst results relative to other available prostheses. These results await confirmation in subsequent analyses.
This study contributed to the current need to identify hip and knee prostheses whose outcomes might be worse than expected. This identification could have an impact at the patient, surgeon, industry, and stakeholder levels.
The potential of a mass asteroid impact on Earth to disturb the chemosynthetic communities at global scale is discussed. Special emphasis is made on the potential influence on anammox communities and their implications in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. According to our preliminary estimates, anammox communities could be seriously affected as a consequence of global cooling and the large process of acidification usually associated with the occurrence of this kind of event. The scale of affectations could vary in a scenario like the Chicxulub as a function of the amount of soot, depth of the water column and the deposition rate for sulphates assumed in each case. The most severe affectations take place where the amount of soot and sulphates produced during the event is higher and the scale of time of settlements for sulphates is short, of the order of 10 h. In this extreme case, the activity of anammox is considerably reduced, a condition that may persist for several years after the impact. Furthermore, the impact of high levels of other chemical compounds like sulphates and nitrates associated with the occurrence of this kind of event are also discussed.
Physical conditions and chemical abundances of two H II regions and a planetary nebula in the dIrr galaxy Leo A are presented. These determinations were performed using the direct method (Te measured) and the ONS method. We also constructed photoionization models for the three nebulae to determine the abundances and to analyse the ionizing stars. The O abundance was determined to be 12+log(O/H) = 7.4±0.2 in all cases.
CHD is becoming an increasing priority worldwide, as it is one of the main causes of death in low- and middle-income countries lately. This study aims to evaluate the association between beverage consumption patterns and the risk of CHD among Mexican adult population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 6640 adults participating in the Health Workers’ Cohort Study. Factor analysis was performed to identify beverage patterns using sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms to estimate CHD risk. The prevalence of moderate to high CHD risk was 17·8 %. We identified four major beverage consumption patterns, which were categorised as alcohol, coffee/tea, soft drinks and low-fat milk. We observed a lower risk of CHD (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·80; and OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·79, respectively) among participants in the upper quintile of alcohol or low-fat milk consumption compared with those in the bottom quintile. In contrast, a higher consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with CHD risk (OR=1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·20) when compared with other extreme quintiles. Finally, coffee/tea consumption was not significantly associated with CHD risk. Our findings suggest that a beverage pattern characterised by a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD among the Mexican adult population, whereas patterns of moderate alcohol intake and low-fat milk may be associated with a reduced risk.
The Latino population in the United States is rapidly growing and faces profound health disparities; however, engagement of Latinos in biomedical research remains low. Our community-based participatory research partnership has recruited 2083 Spanish-speaking Latinos into 21 studies over 15 years. We sought to identify and describe the strategies we have used to successfully recruit and retain Spanish-speaking Latinos in research.
We abstracted and analyzed data from archived study notes, progress reports, team meeting minutes, and in-depth interviews conducted annually from community-based participatory research partnership members. We used a nominal group process to refine and prioritize strategies.
Overall, 13 recruitment strategies and 12 retention strategies emerged. These strategies relied on the creativity and perseverance of the study team and partners.
It is essential that we develop and disseminate effective recruitment and retention strategies that engage Latinos in biomedical research to reduce health disparities and promote health equity.
Intracardiac rhabdomyomas can cause severe ventricular dysfunction and outflow tract obstruction.
A term newborn infant with antenatal diagnosis of giant left ventricle rhabdomyoma presented with cardiac failure and duct-dependent systemic circulation after birth. She was treated successfully with everolimus, showing decrease in tumour size and improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction.
Tumour regression rate was 0.32 cm2/day and improved to 0.80 cm2/day with the use of everolimus. Herein we report a newborn with inoperable giant left ventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma and significant regression of the tumour. To our knowledge, this is the largest left ventricular rhabdomyoma reported. A review of the literature was undertaken for comparison.
Everolimus has proven to be efficacious in size reduction of cardiac rhabdomyomas in cases when surgical resection is not possible.
Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understanding.
Magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. They are difficult to detect and characterize because often their properties have to be inferred through interpreting the polarization of the light. Magnetic fields are also challenging to model and understand. Magnetized plasmas behave following highly non-linear differential equations having no general solution, so that every astrophysical problem represents a special case to be studied independently. Hence, magnetic fields are often an inconvenient subject that is overlooked or simply neglected (the elephant in the room, as they are dubbed on posters in the XXV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics). Such a difficulty burdens the research on magnetic fields, which has evolved to become a very technical subject, with many small disconnected communities studying specific aspects and details. The school tried to amend the situation by providing a unifying view of the subject. The students had a chance to understand the behavior of magnetic fields in all astrophysical contexts, from cosmology to the Sun, and from starbursts to AGNs. The school was planned to present a balanced yet complete review of our knowledge, with excursions into the unknown to point out present and future lines of research.
The subject of Cosmic Magnetic Fields was split into seven different topics: cosmic magnetic field essentials, solar magnetic fields, stellar magnetic fields, the role of magnetic fields on AGN feedback, magnetic fields in galaxies, magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and at larger scales, and primordial magnetic fields and magnetic fields in the early Universe. The corresponding lectures were delivered by seven well known and experienced scientists that have played key roles in the major advances of the field during the last years: F. Cattaneo, P. Judge, O. Kochukhov, R. Keppens, R. Beck, K. Dolag, and F. Finelli. Their lectures were recorded and are freely available at the IAC website: http://iactalks.iac.es/talks/serie/19. Together with the reviews included in the present volume, they form a unique resource for both students and professional researchers. They provide a global view of this very compartmentalized, yet fundamental, field of research.