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This chapter discusses and reviews research on the relationship between two closely aligned concepts: intelligence and reasoning. We begin by defining reasoning in a general sense. Next, we review prominent theories and models of intelligence and reasoning in both the psychometric and cognitive psychological traditions, highlighting how the two constructs are both intertwined yet nonetheless conceptually discriminable. We follow by discussing issues involved in validly measuring reasoning, touching on considerations, concerns, and evidence informed by the cognitive and psychometric perspectives. Then, we review the relationship between reasoning and allied constructs and domains, including expertise, practical outcomes (e.g., educational and workplace achievement), working memory, and critical thinking. We conclude by sketching multiple avenues for future research.
Despite broad diversity several common themes about intellectual giftedness and the conditions for its development exist. This chapter provides a review of the research related to intellectual giftedness with a discussion of different themes, summarizing about research on intellectual giftedness in the United States, including the seminal work of Lewis Terman, and presenting an overview of some interesting and potentially important American theories to date. It outlines some interesting research-based trends related to new ideas in defining and developing academic gifts and talents. There is no agreed-upon consensus about who are gifted and no final answers about evolving understandings of how intellectual giftedness develops and the characteristics that help to identify and nurture intellectual gifts and talents. To introduce the challenge associated with both defining and identifying giftedness in students, four brief case studies are discussed in the chapter.