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Variety management is a cross-domain issue in product family design. In the real field, the relationships across the domains are so complex for most of the existing product families that they cannot be easily identified without proper reference architecture. This reference architecture should provide the cross- domain mapping mechanisms in an explicit manner and be able to identify the proper units for management. From this perspective of cross-domain framework, this paper introduces development architecture (DA) to describe the relationships between elements in market, design, and production domains and to give insights for the cross-domain variety management in the product development stage. DA has three parts: (1) the arrangement of elements in each domain, (2) the mapping between elements, and (3) the identification of management sets and key interfaces which are the proper units for variety management. The proposed development architecture framework is applied to the case of front chassis family of modules of an automobile.
To measure chronological changes in the marine reservoir effect in western Japan, 47 marine shells and 35 terrestrial plants from the same horizons in two cores of Holocene sediments were radiocarbon dated by the KIGAM AMS facility. These cores were obtained from the central and northern parts of Hakata Bay using a Geoslicer device. This drilling tool provided us continuous coverage and many samples. In order to determine the species effects on the marine reservoir effect, both filter feeders and a deposit feeder were selected for study. Based on the analysis of lithology, mollusk assemblage, and 14C dating, two sedimentary units were determined: the upper bay floor sediment and lower estuarine sediment. Reservoir ages of 280±150 yr (n=17) and 340±140 yr (n=18) were obtained from the central and northern parts of Hakata Bay during 2000 to 10,000 cal BP, respectively. Based on these results, it is clear that a paleoenvironmental change occurred here as a result of sea-level rise during the deglacial period.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
The YSTAR program is a general sky survey looking for variability. The main equipments are three 0.5-m telescopes. These telescopes have fast F/2 optics covering nearly 3.5 square degree field onto a 2K CCD. They also have very fast slew capability, which exceeds 10 degrees per second. These two factors make them most suitable for rapid target acquisition and wide-field surveys of various kinds. Our primary objective is to identify and monitor variable stars down to 18th R-magnitude, and our observing mode allows the same data set to be also useful in identifying asteroids. Our first telescope has just begun regular automated operation, and the second telescope will be installed in South Africa within this year to provide coverage of the southern sky.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common dietary exposures that cross the human placenta and are classified as a probable human carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential impact of exposure to PAH-containing meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes.
Prospective birth cohort study. Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, who were free from chronic disease such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Maternal consumption of PAH-rich meat was estimated through FFQ. Multiple linear regression was used to assess factors related to higher intake and the association between dietary PAH and birth outcomes.
Republic of Korea, 2006–2011.
Pregnant women (n 778) at 12–28 weeks of gestation enrolled in the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.
The multivariable regression model showed a significant reduction in birth weight associated with higher consumption level of foods rich in PAH, such as grilled or roasted meat, during pregnancy (β=−17·48 g, P<0·05 for every 1 point higher in meat score). Further adjusting for biomarkers of airborne PAH did not alter this association. There was no evidence that higher consumption level of PAH-rich meat shortens the duration of gestation (P=0·561). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference produced negative effects that were not statistically significant.
Consumption of higher levels of barbecued, fried, roasted and smoked meats during pregnancy was associated with reduced birth weight. Dietary risk of PAH exposure in Korean women is of concern.
A series of annual tree-ring measurements has been performed in order to reconstruct the radiocarbon concentration variation in the Korean atmosphere from AD 1650 to 1850. The absolute ages of the samples were determined using dendrochronology. Alpha-cellulose extraction was applied to prepare the tree-ring samples for precise 14C measurement. The 14C concentrations of the tree rings were then plotted with the dendrochronological ages and showed that during the period AD 1650–1850, the discrepancy in 14C concentration in the Korean atmosphere from IntCal data is small enough to use IntCal data without any further correction. This is nearly one third of the average offset of the 400 yr from AD 1250 to 1650. One of the probable causes for the regional offset around Korea is the contribution of 14C-depleted CO2 released from the northern Pacific Ocean, where old deep water upwells to the surface. It is likely that the release rate of 14C-depleted CO2 decreased due to the temperature change during the Little Ice Age.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
Many transgenic domestic animals have been developed to produce therapeutic proteins in the mammary gland, and this approach is one of the most important methods for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, expression and secretion of a protein varies because transgenes are integrated at random sites in the genome. In addition, distal enhancers are very important for transcriptional gene regulation and tissue-specific gene expression. Development of a vector system regulated accurately in the genome is needed to improve production of therapeutic proteins. The objective of this study was to develop a knock-in system for expression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the bovine β-casein gene locus. The F2A sequence was fused to the human FGF2 gene and inserted into exon 3 of the β-casein gene. We detected expression of human FGF2 mRNA in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells by RT-PCR and human FGF2 protein in the culture media using western blot analysis when the knock-in vector was introduced. We transfected the knock-in vector into bovine ear fibroblasts and produced knock-in fibroblasts using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was more efficient than conventional methods. In addition, we produced knock-in blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the knock-in fibroblasts. Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
In order to improve the charge/discharge cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 cathode, the spinel LiMn2O4 is coated on the structurally stable SiO2 nanosphere cores, LiMn2O4@SiO2. The core-shell LiMn2O4@SiO2 nanosphere cathodes are prepared by the MnCO3 precipitation on the silica surface and the following solid state reaction of MnCO3@SiO2 with a lithium salt. The charge/discharge cycle stability has improved by the nanostructural characteristics of the LiMn2O4@ shell on the SiO2 core. The cathode composed of LiMn2O4@SiO2 nanospheres exhibits higher capacity retention of 97% than that of LiMn2O4 nanoparticles of 89%, after 100 battery cycles at a 10C rate.
Injection drug users (IDUs) often undergo procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the emergency department (ED). We compared adverse events (AEs) for IDUs to those for non-IDUs receiving PSA for incision and drainage of cutaneous abscesses.
This was a retrospective analysis of a PSA safety audit. IDU status was prospectively documented among consecutive patients undergoing PSA at two urban EDs. Structured data describing comorbidities, vital signs, sedation regimens, and adverse events were collected. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients in each group experiencing an AE, whereas the secondary outcomes included recovery times.
Of 525 consecutive patients receiving PSA for incision and drainage of an abscess, 244 were deemed IDUs and 281 non-IDUs. IDUs received higher doses of sedatives and analgesics, and 14 experienced AEs (5.7%), whereas 10 non-IDUs had AEs (3.6%), for a risk difference of 2.1% (95% CI -1.8, 6.5). Median recovery times were 18 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 10-36) for IDUs and 12 minutes (IQR 7-19) for non-IDUs, for a difference of 6 minutes (95% CI 2-9 minutes). Median sedation times were also longer in IDUs, for a difference of 6 minutes (95% CI 5-10 minutes). Of 20 IDU patients and 1 non-IDU patient admitted to hospital, none had experienced an AE related to PSA.
For ED patients requiring PSA for incision and drainage, IDUs had an AE rate similar to that of non-IDUs but longer sedation and recovery times. In experienced hands, PSA may be as safe in IDUs as in patients who do not use injection drugs.
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene set. The biological core networks of the hepatic TH/SH Unique gene set were characterised as those genes involved in the activation of acute inflammatory responses (Orm1, Lbp, Hp and Cfb), disordered lipid metabolism and deregulated cell cycle progression. Networks of the pulmonary Unique gene set displayed the deregulation of cell cycle progression (Cdc20, Cdk1 and Bub1b). These HFD-influenced alterations may have led to favourable conditions for the formation of both pro-inflammatory and pro-mitotic microenvironments in the target organs that promote immune cell infiltration and differentiation, as well as the infiltration and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells.
A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using Ce0.8Sm0.2O2 (Sm-doped ceria, SDC) buffer layer and La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 (LSGM) electrolyte films showed a small degradation in the cell performance after a long-term operation because of La migration from the electrolyte to the buffer layer, resulted in a formation of a less conductive phase. Thus, various ceramic materials such as doped ceria and perovskite-related oxides were investigated for an effective buffer layer with respect to fabricating reliable metal-supported SOFCs using a LSGM electrolyte film. In particular, La-doped CeO2 (LDC) and Pr-doped LaCrO3 (LPCr) were investigated as buffer layer material since the materials showed chemical compatibility with the LSGM and anode materials. The cell using a LDC buffer layer showed a prior stability during the operation for 100 h at 973 K, while the power density of the cell was slightly low owing to the low electrical conductivity of LDC compared with that of SDC or LPCr. In contrast, the cell using a LPCr buffer layer revealed significantly low open circuit voltage (OCV) and power density, which were attributed to Pr decomposition in the LPCr caused by the reactivity with water vapor. However, the metal-supported cell with a multilayer electrolyte film including LSGM/LPCr/SDC layers showed an almost theoretical OCV and reasonably high power density with no degradation after a long-term operation for 100 h at 973 K, suggesting that the LPCr layer effectively prevented La migration and the SDC layer led to avoid the Pr decomposition. Thus, a LPCr is an effective buffer layer material for reliable metal-supported SOFCs using a LSGM electrolyte thin film.
Oxidative stress may be affected by lead exposure as well as antioxidants, yet little is known about the interaction between dietary antioxidants and blood lead levels (BLL) on oxidative stress level. We investigated the interaction between dietary antioxidants and BLL on oxidative stress level. As part of the Biomarker Monitoring for Environmental Health conducted in Seoul and Incheon, Korea, between April and December 2005, we analysed data from 683 adults (female = 47·4 %, mean age 51·4 (sd 8·4) years) who had complete measures on BLL, dietary intakes and oxidative stress marker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)). Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, BLL was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 8-OHdG by ELISA. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the association between dietary antioxidants and 8-OHdG. Geometric means of BLL and 8-OHdG concentrations were 4·1 (sd 1·5) μg/dl and 5·4 (sd 1·9) μg/g creatinine, respectively. Increases of vitamins C and E were significantly associated with the decrease of log10 8-OHdG in the adults from the lowest quartile of the BLL group ( ≤ 3·18 μg/dl, geometric mean = 2·36 μg/dl) than those of the highest quartile BLL group (>5·36 μg/dl, geometric mean = 6·78 μg/dl). Regarding antioxidant-related foods, vegetables excluding kimchi showed a higher inverse relationship with 8-OHdG in the lowest quartile BLL group than the highest group. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the BLL and increasing the intake of dietary antioxidants in the urban population in Korea.
We introduce a method to build up organic/organic and organic/inorganic multilayer films composed of cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) or inorganic cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using a spinning process. Since the deposition of each layer is made at a high spinning speed, the adsorption time for the formation of a homogeneous thin layer takes only 8 to 15 seconds. The adsorbed film thickness per bilayer can be easily controlled from about 5Å to 40Å by varying the spinning speed (Ω) and the mole concentration of polyelectrolytes. We also demonstrated with X-ray reflectivity that the alternating organic/inorganic ultrathin films fabricated by the spin SA process retain highly ordered internal structure in comparison with those prepared by the conventional SA process.
SiON thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at 350 °C using N2O/SiH4 gas mixtures as precursors. As-deposited SiON films were annealed in different gas atmospheres (air, N2, and O2) and at different annealing temperatures (800 oC ∼ 1100 oC). Effects of annealing atmosphere on the Si-O, Si-N, Si-H, and N-H bonding characteristics in SiON films and their structural and optical properties have been investigated. Cross-sectional and planar microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Chemical bonding characteristics and optical properties SiON films were studied using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and prism coupler. Xray diffractions showed no evidence of any crystals in all SiON films. The deposition rate strongly depended on the processing parameters such as radio frequency (rf) power, N2O/SiH4 flow ratio, and SiH4 flow rate. Deposition rate increased as N2O/SiH4 flow ratio increased and SiH4 flow rate increased. It was possible to obtain SiON films with surface roughness of about 1 nm and a high deposition rate of about 4 μm/h when the processing parameters were optimized as rf power of 200 W, N2O/SiH4 flow ratio of 3, SiH4 flow rate of 100 sccm. It was observed that the intensity and the shift of the Si-O stretch and Si-N peaks depended on the annealing atmosphere as well as the annealing temperature. The intensity of Si-O peaks increased in the samples annealed in oxygen atmosphere, but it decreased in the samples annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. The intensity of Si-N peak decreased in the samples annealed in oxygen atmosphere, but it increased in the samples annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. The position of Si-O peaks shifted from 1030 nm to 1140 nm in the samples annealed both in oxygen and in nitrogen atmosphere. It was also observed that the intensities of Si-H (∼2250 cm−1) and N-H (∼3550 cm−1) peaks decreased apparently as the annealing temperature increased in all annealed samples.
In this paper, the fabrication technology of SiN-assisted 0.12um double deck T-gate AlGaAs/InGaAs p-HEMT and 60GHz-bands MMICs for the high rate personal area network (WPAN) system was described. The effect of the gate shape such as the 1st-deck and the 2nd-deck gate head size on the DC and RF characteristics of the p-HEMT device and the device performance at the optimum gate head size were also presented. At 0.22um of the optimum 1st-deck gate head size and 1um of the 2nd-deck head size, the p-HEMT device with two finger gates of 0.12um length × 50um width shows an extrinsic transconductance of 529mS/mm and a threshold voltage of -1.19V. The cut-off frequency and the maximum frequency of oscillation were 94.7GHz and 189.1GHz, respectively. The gate shape of the p-HEMT device such as a gate head size is correlated to parasitic capacitances including Cgs which have effects on RF performances including a cut-off frequency (fT) and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax).
We report application of in-situ laser reflectometry in monitoring InAl1−xAs (0 ≤ x ≤1) epitaxial layers grown on a GaAs substrate by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Two different lasers were used simultaneously: One was a He-Ne laser operating at 0.6328 μm and the other was a diode laser operating at 1.53 μm. The two laser beams were incident on the growing layer at an angle of 71° from the surface normal, and the reflected beams were detected by Si and Ge photovoltaic detectors, respectively. Since the epitaxial layer of InxAl1−xAs (0 ≤ x ≤1) has a wide range of index of refraction, the reflected signals showed a variety of patterns. The optical constants of the InxAl1−xAs epitaxial layers were obtained for the entire range of composition.
The large optical detection systems that are typically utilized at present may not be able to reach their full potential as portable analysis tools. Accurate, early, and fast diagnosis for many diseases requires the direct detection of biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and cells. In this research, a glass microchip with integrated microelectrodes has been fabricated, and the performance of electrochemical impedance detection was investigated for the biomolecules. We have used label-free λ-DNA as a sample biomolecule. By changing the distance between microelectrodes, the significant difference between DW and the TE buffer solution is obtained from the impedance-frequency measurements. In addition, the comparison for the impedance magnitude of DW, the TE buffer, and λ-DNA at the same distance was analyzed.