Near-equiatomic porous nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi SMAs) are becoming one of the most promising biomaterials in bone implants because of their unique advantages over currently used biomaterials. For example, they have good mechanical properties and lower Young�s modulus relative to dense NiTi, Ti, and Ti-based alloys. Porous NiTi SMAs are relatively easy to machine compared to porous ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate that tend to exhibit brittle failure. The porous structure with interconnecting open pores can also allow tissue in-growth and favors bone osseointegration. In addition, porous NiTi alloys remain exhibiting good shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE) similar to dense NiTi alloys. To optimize porous NiTi SMAs in bone implant applications, the current research focuses on the fabrication methods and surface modification techniques in order to obtain adjustable bone-like structures with good mechanical properties, excellent superelasticity, as well as bioactive passivation on the entire exposed surface areas to block nickel ion leaching and enhance the surface biological activity. This invited paper describes progress in the fabrication of the porous materials and our recent work on surface nanorization of porous NiTi scaffolds in bone grafts applications.