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Highly-directional image artifacts such as ion mill curtaining, mechanical scratches, or image striping from beam instability degrade the interpretability of micrographs. These unwanted, aperiodic features extend the image along a primary direction and occupy a small wedge of information in Fourier space. Deleting this wedge of data replaces stripes, scratches, or curtaining, with more complex streaking and blurring artifacts—known within the tomography community as “missing wedge” artifacts. Here, we overcome this problem by recovering the missing region using total variation minimization, which leverages image sparsity-based reconstruction techniques—colloquially referred to as compressed sensing (CS)—to reliably restore images corrupted by stripe-like features. Our approach removes beam instability, ion mill curtaining, mechanical scratches, or any stripe features and remains robust at low signal-to-noise. The success of this approach is achieved by exploiting CS's inability to recover directional structures that are highly localized and missing in Fourier Space.
Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster.
We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties.
The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature.
The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:127–137)
Here we provide comprehensive guidelines for the assessment and treatment of violence and aggression of various etiologies, including psychotic aggression and impulsive aggression due to schizophrenia, mood disorders, ADHD, or trauma, and predatory aggression due to psychopathy and other personality disorders. These guidelines have been developed from a collection of prescribing recommendations, clinical trial results, and years of clinical experience in treating patients who are persistently violent or aggressive in the California Department of State Hospital System. Many of the recommendations provided in these guidelines employ off-label prescribing practices; thus, sound clinical judgment based on individual patient needs and according to institution formularies must be considered when applying these guidelines in clinical practice.
Recent research indicates that cognitive reserve mitigates the clinical expression of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). This literature primarily uses premorbid intelligence and lifetime experiences as indicators. However, changes in current recreational activities may also contribute to the maintenance of neural function despite brain atrophy. We examined the moderation effects of current changes in recreational activity on the relationship between brain atrophy and information processing speed in 57 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Current enrichment was assessed using the Recreation and Pastimes subscale from the Sickness Impact Profile. In patients reporting current declines in recreational activities, brain atrophy was negatively associated with cognition, but there was no such association in participants reporting stable participation. The MRI metric-by-recreational activity interaction was significant in separate hierarchical regression analyses conducted using third ventricle width, neocortical volume, T2 lesion volume, and thalamic volume as brain measures. Results suggest that recreational activities protect against brain atrophy's detrimental influence on cognition. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–6)
We sought to describe the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of adolescents who presented to a single institution with chest pain and an elevated troponin I value in the absence of typical symptoms of pericarditis or myocarditis.
Materials and methods
We performed a retrospective review of patients in the age group of 10–18 years of age with no history of significant heart disease admitted to our institution from 2000 to 2010 after presenting with chest pain and an elevated troponin I value.
A total of 16 patients were identified with a median age of 16.5 years (range 11.2–17.8 years). Of these 13 (81%) were male and 10 (63%) showed evidence of localised ST elevations on electrocardiogram. The median peak troponin I level was 17.8 nanograms per millilitre (range 0.89–227, normal less than 0.4). There were eight patients (50%) with a diagnosis of coronary vasospasm, three patients (20%) with atypical myopericarditis, one patient with coronary anomaly, one patient with hypercoagulable disorder, and one patient with prolonged supraventricular tachycardia. In two patients, no definitive diagnosis was made. There was one patient who needed catheter-based intervention, which involved stenting of a coronary artery after a procedure-related complication.
In our cohort of adolescents without history of significant cardiac disease, chest pain and elevated troponin I levels were attributed to a variety of causes. Although coronary vasospasm and atypical myopericarditis were seen most commonly, coronary anomaly was identified in one case. Magnetic resonance imaging proved a useful diagnostic tool to assess coronary artery anatomy and myocardial changes suggestive of myocarditis. On the basis of these results and a review of the literature, a general evaluation algorithm is presented.
This chapter discusses how the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain can be studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Most contemporary functional brain imaging experiments are conducted using fMRI. This technique measures changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in capillaries and venules adjacent to neuronal clusters whose firing rate is modulated by task performance. Inference is most straightforward when the activated brain region participates in a circumscribed set of cognitive functions. For example, state related modulation of amygdala activity in response to affective pictures can be reasonably related to changes in emotional processing. Results of many fMRI experiments conducted on sleep-deprived subjects have consistently shown reduced superior parietal and lateral occipital activation during task performance. Results of more recent studies involve making decisions under uncertainty have shown that sleep-deprived persons tend toward riskier options, mirroring the behavior of patients with medial frontal damage.
n-3 Fatty acids are recognised as influencing both wound healing and immunity. We assessed the impact of a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula (study formula) on the healing of pressure ulcers and on immune function in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. A total of forty patients with pressure ulcers and receiving nutritional support were enrolled (intervention group, n 20, received study formula; and a control group, n 20, received an isoenergetic formula). Total and differential leucocyte count and percentage of adhesion molecule positive granulocyte and lymphocyte cells (CD11a, CD11b, CD18 and CD49b) were measured on days 0, 7 and 14. Percentage of positive lymphocytes for CD54, CD49b, CD49d and CD8 were also measured on days 0, 7 and 14. The state of pressure ulcers was assessed by using the pressure ulcer scale for healing tool score on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. No between-group differences in patient demographics, anthropometry or diagnostic class were observed. Patients who received the study formula showed significant increases in the percentage of positive CD18 and CD11a lymphocytes and of CD49b granulocytes as compared to controls (P < 0·05). While the severity of pressure ulcers was not significantly different between the two groups on admission, severity increased significantly over time for the control group (P < 0·05), but not for the study group. The present study suggests that a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula may prevent worsening of pressure ulcers and that this effect may be mediated by an effect on adhesion molecule expression.
On June 30,2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice rescinded die United States designation of Libya as a state sponsor of terrorism. Her action ended nearly twenty-seven years of Libya’s pariah status in American law and rhetoric.The road to the rehabilitation of Libya was a long one in more than a temporal sense. During the 1980s, the country was widely perceived as the world’s strongest supporter of terrorism.The United States in particular saw Libya under the leadership of Muammar el-Qaddafi as a “rogue state” posing a serious threat to U.S. national security interests.This fear was confirmed by Libya’s destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988. A bomb placed by Libyan agents on board the aircraft en route to New York detonated over Lockerbie, Scodand, resulting in the deaths of 270 civilians, including 189 Americans. It was perhaps the single worst act of terrorism against the United States until the carnage of September 11, 2001.