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Little is known about the neural substrates of suicide risk in mood disorders. Improving the identification of biomarkers of suicide risk, as indicated by a history of suicide-related behavior (SB), could lead to more targeted treatments to reduce risk.
Participants were 18 young adults with a mood disorder with a history of SB (as indicated by endorsing a past suicide attempt), 60 with a mood disorder with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) but not SB, 52 with a mood disorder with no history of SI or SB (MD), and 82 healthy comparison participants (HC). Resting-state functional connectivity within and between intrinsic neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), salience and emotion network (SEN), and default mode network (DMN), was compared between groups.
Several fronto-parietal regions (k > 57, p < 0.005) were identified in which individuals with SB demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity within (in the CCN) and across networks (CCN-SEN and CCN-DMN). Connectivity with some of these same regions also distinguished the SB group when participants were re-scanned after 1–4 months. Extracted data defined SB group membership with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (79–88%).
These results suggest that individuals with a history of SB in the context of mood disorders may show reliably distinct patterns of intrinsic network connectivity, even when compared to those with mood disorders without SB. Resting-state fMRI is a promising tool for identifying subtypes of patients with mood disorders who may be at risk for suicidal behavior.
Little is known about predictors of recovery from bipolar depression.
We investigated affective instability (a pattern of frequent and large mood shifts over time) as a predictor of recovery from episodes of bipolar depression and as a moderator of response to psychosocial treatment for acute depression.
A total of 252 out-patients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder and who were depressed enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) and were randomised to one of three types of intensive psychotherapy for depression (n = 141) or a brief psychoeducational intervention (n = 111). All analyses were by intention-to-treat.
Degree of instability of symptoms of depression and mania predicted a lower likelihood of recovery and longer time until recovery, independent of the concurrent effects of symptom severity. Affective instability did not moderate the effects of psychosocial treatment on recovery from depression.
Affective instability may be a clinically relevant characteristic that influences the course of bipolar depression.
Psychiatric conditions affect multiple areas of psychosocial functioning, including functioning in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for absenteeism (work days missed due to mental or physical illness) and work performance (quality of work performed when at work) for healthy individuals.
We selected 300 individuals without psychiatric or medical conditions from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study (NCS-R). Absenteeism and work performance were assessed using the NCS-R version of the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ).
Employees missed an average of 5.1 days of work in the past year. Absenteeism varied across occupations, with performers of routine tasks, office clerks, and professionals exhibiting the greatest variance in days missed. Work performance ratings were skewed toward high performance ratings and did not differ across occupations. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, and education level did not substantially moderate absenteeism and work performance norms.
Skewed ratings for work performance are consistent with previous findings using the HPQ. This may reflect a general tendency that individuals rate themselves favorably when they compare themselves to others.
This study provides normative tables for absenteeism and work performance in individuals without psychiatric or medical conditions, against which individuals with such conditions may be compared.
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