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Since its introduction into clinical practice in the early 1950s, the indications for CPB have broadened, from operations on or within the heart, to include non-cardiac thoracic, abdominal and neurological procedures. The indications for CPB for non-cardiac surgery are shown in Box 28.1.
The normal adult MV area is 4–6 cm2. Unlike other heart valves, the MV consists of two asymmetric leaflets. The aortic (anterior) leaflet makes up 65% of the valve area but its base forms only 35% of the circumference. The mural (posterior) leaflet usually consists of three main scallops, although there may be up to five. The leaflets are joined at the anterolateral and posteromedial ends of the commissure. The aortic MV leaflet shares the same fibrous attachment as the non-coronary cusp of the AV.
A comprehensive review of the complications of cardiac surgery would fill an entire volume. This chapter covers the more common and life-threatening complications. The reader is directed to the publications list under further reading.
Since the publication of the first edition of Core Topics in Cardiac Anesthesia, the clinical landscape has undergone significant change. Recent developments include the increased use of electrophysiology, the resurgence of primary percutaneous intervention in acute coronary syndromes, the use of percutaneous devices in patients previously considered inoperable, and the withdrawal of aprotinin. Against this landscape, this invaluable resource has been fully updated. New chapters are dedicated to right heart valves, pulmonary vascular disease, cardiac tumours and cardiac trauma. All other chapters have been updated according to the latest international guidelines. Written and edited by an international author team with a wealth of expertise in all aspects of the perioperative care of cardiac patients, topics are presented in an easy to digest and a readily accessible manner. Core Topics in Cardiac Anesthesia, Second Edition is essential reading for residents and fellows in anesthesia and cardiac surgery and clinical perfusionists.