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This chapter reviews a small, selective number of results in the study of the maturation of language, to illustrate its present state. It explores the question about confrontation with biological data, and uses illustrations to provide results. The chapter discusses the possibility of a wedge into the biological study of the human mind, looking at what is possible in the study of the biology of cognition. It reviews the study of language impairment (LI). There is good reason to believe that children with Specific LI are not just the tail of a normal distribution of development. There is a large complex of properties that flows from the analysis of the finiteness system, or generally the unique checking constraint (UCC)-delayed system, as a piece of biological development. Biology takes behavioral genetic data seriously, as part of its enterprise, so the integration of which Salvador Luria wrote has in fact occurred.
Defining risk factors for central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) is critical to establishing prevention measures, especially for factors such as nurse staffing and antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs.
We prospectively monitored CVCs, nurse staffing, and patient-related variables for CVC-associated BSIs among adults admitted to eight ICUs during 2 years.
A total of 240 CVC-associated BSIs (2.8%) were identified among 4,535 patients, representing 8,593 CVCs. Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk for CVC-associated BSI only among patients whose CVC was used to administer total parenteral nutrition (TPN, 2.6 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days vs no TPN, 7.5 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days; P = .006). Among patients not receiving TPN, there was an increase in the risk of CVC-associated BSI in patients cared for by “float” nurses for more than 60% of the duration of the CVC. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CVC-associated BSIs were the use of TPN in non-antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs (P = .0001), patient cared for by a float nurse for more than 60% of CVC-days (P = .0019), no antibiotics administered to the patient within 48 hours of insertion (P = .0001), and patient unarousable for 70% or more of the duration of the CVC (P = .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were associated with a lower risk for CVC-associated BSI (P = .0001).
Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk of CVC-associated BSI by 66% in patients receiving TPN. Limiting the use of float nurses for ICU patients with CVCs and the use of PICCs may also reduce the risk of CVC-associated BSI.
Jonathan D. Majer, Department of Environmental Biology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia,
Karl E.C. Brennan, Department of Environmental Biology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia,
Lubomir Bisevac, Department of Environmental Biology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia
In this chapter we outline some of the invertebrate-related issues that need to be considered during the restoration of ecosystems. Since a major factor in relation to this involves knowing what is present in the area, we also discuss the sampling protocols that need to be followed when surveying the invertebrate fauna. Readers are referred to the book Animals in Primary Succession: The Role of Fauna in Reclaimed Lands (Majer, 1989) for a comprehensive account of the importance of invertebrates in restored areas.
Horwitz et al. (1999) point out that restoration of a system requires more than just recreating the vegetation assemblage. Restoration may be deemed to have failed unless the services of nutrient retention and cycling, purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, pollination, dispersal of seeds, and other ecosystem services are recovered. Invertebrates dominate the functions and processes of most ecosystems. The goods and services provided by these systems to humanity rely on their invertebrate communities and the ecological processes that are driven by these animals. Anyone who is concerned with restoration of ecosystems must therefore consider this important component of the biota, both in terms of its role and its diversity. Although not necessarily linearly related (Schwartz et al., 2000), the links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are demonstrable, and reflect the increased functional roles that are possible in ecosystems that contain more species (see Tilman, 1997).