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Residual herbicides applied PRE provide early season weed control, potentially avoid the need for multiple POST herbicides, and can provide additional control of herbicide-resistant weeds. Thus, field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Concord, NE, to evaluate the influence of PRE herbicides on critical time for postemergence weed removal (CTWR) in corn. The studies were arranged in a split-plot design that consisted of three herbicide regimes as main plot treatments and seven weed removal timings as subplot treatments in four replications. The herbicide regimes included no PRE herbicide, atrazine, and a premix of saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P mixed with pyroxasulfone. The weed removal timings were at V3, V6, V9, V12, and V15 corn growth stages and then plots were kept weed-free until harvest. A weed-free and nontreated control were included for comparison. The relationship between corn growth or yield, and weed removal timings in growing degree days (GDD) was described by a four-parameter log-logistic model. This model was used to estimate the critical time for weed removal based on 5% crop yield loss threshold. A delay in weed removal until the V2 to V3 corn growth stage (91 to 126 GDD) reduced corn biomass by 5% without PRE herbicide application. The CTWR started at V3 without PRE herbicide in both years. Atrazine delayed the CTWR up to V5 in both years, whereas saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P plus pyroxasulfone further delayed the CTWR up to the V10 and V8 corn growth stages in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Herbicide applied PRE particularly with multiple sites of action can delay the CTWR in corn up to a maximum growth stage of V10, and delay or reduce the need for POST weed management.
Digital games are a fertile ground for exploring novel computer music applications. While the lineage of game-based compositional praxis long precedes the advent of digital computers, it flourishes now in a rich landscape of music-making apps, sound toys and playful installations that provide access to music creation through game-like interaction. Characterising these systems is the pervasive avoidance of a competitive game framework, reflecting an underlying assumption that notions of conflict and challenge are somewhat antithetical to musical creativity. As a result, the interplay between competitive gameplay and musical creativity is seldom explored. This article reports on a comparative user evaluation of two original games that frame interactive music composition as a human–computer competition. The games employ contrasting designs so that their juxtaposition can address the following research question: how are player perceptions of musical creativity shaped in competitive game environments? Significant differences were found in system usability, and also creativity and ownership of musical outcomes. The user study indicates that a high degree of musical control is widely preferred despite an apparent cost to general usability. It further reveals that players have diverse criteria for ‘games’ which can dramatically influence their perceptions of musical creativity, control and ownership. These findings offer new insights for the design of future game-based composition systems, and reflect more broadly on the complex relationship between musical creativity, games and competition.
Widespread and repeated use of glyphosate resulted in an increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. This led to an urgent need for diversification of weed control programs and use of PRE herbicides with alternative sites of action. Field experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period (2015 to 2018) across three locations in Nebraska to evaluate the effects of PRE-applied herbicides on critical time for weed removal (CTWR) in GR soybean. The studies were laid out in a split-plot arrangement with herbicide regime as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. The herbicide regimes used were either no PRE or premix of either sulfentrazone plus imazethapyr (350 + 70 g ai ha−1) or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus pyroxasulfone (26 + 70 + 120 g ai ha−1). The weed removal timings were at V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 soybean stages, with weed-free and weedy season-long checks. Weeds were removed by application of glyphosate (1,400 g ae ha−1) or by hoeing. The results across all years and locations suggested that the use of PRE herbicides delayed CTWR in soybean. In particular, the CTWR without PRE herbicides was determined to be around the V1 to V2 (14 to 21 d after emergence [DAE]) growth stage, depending on the location and weed pressure. The use of PRE-applied herbicides delayed CTWR from about the V4 (28 DAE) stage up to the R5 (66 DAE) stage. These results suggest that the use of PRE herbicides in GR soybean could delay the need for POST application of glyphosate by 2 to 5 wk, thereby reducing the need for multiple applications of glyphosate during the growing season. Additionally, the use of PRE herbicides could provide additional modes of action needed to manage GR weeds in GR soybean.
The north-west European population of Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii declined by 38% between 1995 and 2010 and is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the European Red List of birds. Here, we combined information on food resources within the landscape with long-term data on swan numbers, habitat use, behaviour and two complementary measures of body condition, to examine whether changes in food type and availability have influenced the Bewick’s Swan’s use of their main wintering site in the UK, the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens. Maximum number of Bewick’s Swans rose from 620 in winter 1958/59 to a high of 7,491 in winter 2004/05, before falling to 1,073 birds in winter 2013/14. Between winters 1958/59 and 2014/15 the Ouse Washes supported between 0.5 and 37.9 % of the total population wintering in north-west Europe (mean ± 95 % CI = 18.1 ± 2.4 %). Swans fed on agricultural crops, shifting from post-harvest remains of root crops (e.g. sugar beet and potatoes) in November and December to winter-sown cereals (e.g. wheat) in January and February. Inter-annual variation in the area cultivated for these crops did not result in changes in the peak numbers of swans occurring on the Ouse Washes. Behavioural and body condition data indicated that food supplies on the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens remain adequate to allow the birds to gain and maintain good body condition throughout winter with no increase in foraging effort. Our findings suggest that the recent decline in numbers of Bewick’s Swans at this internationally important site was not linked to inadequate food resources.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 14 herbicide treatments for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) control over a period of 10 yr. The study commenced in 2000/2001 at four wetland locations in Nebraska. The evaluated herbicides included: glyphosate at 2.2 and 3.4 kg ha−1; 2,4-D dimethylamine at 1.4 and 2.8 kg ae ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 and 2.1 kg ae ha−1; imazapyr at 1.1 and 1.7 kg ae ha−1; metsulfuron at 0.042 and 0.084 ai kg ha−1; fosamine at 13.5 and 22.4 kg ai ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 kg ae ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 ae kg ha−1; and metsulfuron at 0.042 kg ai ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 kg ae ha−1. Some treatments provided excellent control (90%) that lasted only one season, while others suppressed L. salicaria growth for multiple seasons, depending on the location and the age of L. salicaria stand. Application of higher rates of glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron consistently provided excellent control (≥90%) of L. salicaria that lasted 360 d after treatment at most locations. Application of fosamine and the lower rate of 2,4-D amine provided the least L. salicaria control at most locations. The older the L. salicaria stand, the more multiple applications of herbicides were needed to completely control L. salicaria. Generally, there were higher percentages of grasses in the 2,4-D-, triclopyr-, and metsulfuron-treated plots compared with higher percentages of broadleaf species in the glyphosate- and imazapyr-treated plots at each location.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
In the face of environmental uncertainty due to anthropogenic climate change, islands are at the front lines of global change, threatened by sea level rise, habitat alteration, extinctions and declining biodiversity. Islands also stand at the forefront of scientific study for understanding the deep history of human ecodynamics and to build sustainable future systems. We summarize the long history of human interactions with Polynesian, Mediterranean, Californian and Caribbean island ecosystems, documenting the effects of various waves of human settlement and socioeconomic systems, from hunter–gatherer–fishers, to agriculturalists, to globalized colonial interests. We identify degradation of island environments resulting from human activities, as well as cases of human management of resources to enhance productivity and create more sustainable systems. These case studies suggest that within a general global pattern of progressive island degradation, there was no single trajectory of human impact, but rather complex effects based on variable island physiographies, human subsistence strategies, population densities, technologies, sociopolitical organization and decision-making.
Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted in Nebraska to (1) confirm the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting resistant-waterhemp biotype (HPPD-RW) by quantifying the resistance levels in dose-response studies, and (2) to evaluate efficacy of PRE-only, POST-only, and PRE followed by POST herbicide programs for control of HPPD-RW in corn. Greenhouse dose-response studies confirmed that the suspected waterhemp biotype in Nebraska has evolved resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides with a 2- to 18-fold resistance depending upon the type of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide being sprayed. Under field conditions, at 56 d after treatment, ≥90% control of the HPPD-RW was achieved with PRE-applied mesotrione/atrazine/S-metolachlor+acetochlor, pyroxasulfone (180 and 270 g ai ha−1), pyroxasulfone/fluthiacet-methyl/atrazine, and pyroxasulfone+saflufenacil+atrazine. Among POST-only herbicide programs, glyphosate, a premix of mesotrione/atrazine tank-mixed with diflufenzopyr/dicamba, or metribuzin, or glufosinate provided ≥92% HPPD-RW control. Herbicide combinations of different effective sites of action in mixtures provided ≥86% HPPD-RW control in PRE followed by POST herbicide programs. It is concluded that the suspected waterhemp biotype is resistant to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides and alternative herbicide programs are available for effective control in corn. The occurrence of HPPD-RW in Nebraska is significant because it limits the effectiveness of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides.
Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Methods: Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results: MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions: Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 412–425)
Objectives: There is a well-known association between memory impairment and major depressive disorder (MDD). Additionally, recent studies are also showing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) abnormalities in active and remitted MDD. However, no studies to date have examined both rs connectivity and memory performance in early course remitted MDD, nor the relationship between connectivity and semantically cued episodic memory. Methods: The rsMRI data from two 3.0 Tesla GE scanners were collected from 34 unmedicated young adults with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 23 healthy controls (HCs) between 18 and 23 years of age using bilateral seeds in the hippocampus. Participants also completed a semantically cued list-learning test, and their performance was correlated with hippocampal seed-based rsMRI. Regression models were also used to predict connectivity patterns from memory performance. Results: After correcting for sex, rMDD subjects performed worse than HCs on the total number of words recalled and recognized. rMDD demonstrated significant in-network hypoactivation between the hippocampus and multiple fronto-temporal regions, and multiple extra-network hyperconnectivities between the hippocampus and fronto-parietal regions when compared to HCs. Memory performance negatively predicted connectivity in HCs and positively predicted connectivity in rMDD. Conclusions Even when individuals with a history of MDD are no longer displaying active depressive symptoms, they continue to demonstrate worse memory performance, disruptions in hippocampal connectivity, and a differential relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal connectivity. (JINS, 2016, 22, 225–239)
The present study examined the impact of children's maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children.