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The Internet is gaining relevance as a platform where extremist organizations seek to recruit new members. For this preregistered study, we developed and tested a novel online game, Radicalise, which aims to combat the effectiveness of online recruitment strategies used by extremist organizations, based on the principles of active psychological inoculation. The game “inoculates” players by exposing them to severely weakened doses of the key techniques and methods used to recruit and radicalize individuals via social media platforms: identifying vulnerable individuals, gaining their trust, isolating them from their community and pressuring them into committing a criminal act in the name of the extremist organization. To test the game's effectiveness, we conducted a preregistered 2 × 2 mixed (pre–post) randomized controlled experiment (n = 291) with two outcome measures. The first measured participants’ ability and confidence in assessing the manipulativeness of fictitious WhatsApp messages making use of an extremist manipulation technique before and after playing. The second measured participants’ ability to identify what factors make an individual vulnerable to extremist recruitment using 10 profile vignettes, also before and after playing. We find that playing Radicalise significantly improves participants’ ability and confidence in spotting manipulative messages and the characteristics associated with vulnerability.
In this work, lanthanide-doped, sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals were prepared and dispersed in a solvent consisting of 90 vol% toluene and 10 vol% methyl benzoate. Poly (methyl methacrylate) polymer was dissolved in the solvent, in addition to the nanocrystals. Inks were printed using direct-write techniques. Substrates used included Kapton®, bond paper, metal and glass. Stencil patterns and QR codes were printed with these inks. An overview of direct write printing for security applications is given. On many substrates, these printed traces are difficult to detect in ambient lighting, but can be easily read using near-infrared (NIR) illumination, making them very useful for covert and semi-covert security printing applications.