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To explore associations of early infant feeding with (i) eating patterns in the second year of life and (ii) weight status in the fourth year of life in a prospective cohort of children in Scotland.
Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) longitudinal birth cohort study (2005–2008).
Children aged 9–12 months (n 5217) followed through to 45–48 months.
Infant feeding was associated with eating patterns, defined by using SPSS two-step cluster analysis, in the second year of life. Children who were ever breast-fed compared with never breast-fed (adjusted OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·27, 1·73) were more likely to have a positive eating pattern (Cluster 2). Children who started complementary feeding at 4–5 months or 6–10 months compared with 0–3 months (adjusted OR = 1·32, 95 % CI 1·09, 1·59 or AOR = 1·50, 95 % CI 1·19, 1·89) were more likely to belong to Cluster 2. Breast-feeding was negatively associated with being overweight or obese in the fourth year of life compared with no breast-feeding (adjusted OR = 0·81, 95 % CI 0·81, 1·01). Introduction of complementary feeding at 4–5 months compared with 0–3 months was negatively associated with being overweight or obese (adjusted OR = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·97).
Breast-feeding and introduction of complementary feeding after 4 months were associated with a positive eating pattern in the second year of life. Introduction of complementary feeding at 4–5 months compared with 0–3 months was negatively associated with being overweight or obese.
To determine the prevalence of health care-associated infection (HAI) in older people in acute care hospitals, detailing the specific types of HAI and specialties in which these are most prevalent.
Secondary analysis of the Scottish National Healthcare Associated Infection Prevalence Survey data set.
Patients and Setting.
All inpatients in acute care (n = 11,090) in all acute care hospitals in Scotland (n = 45).
The study found a linear relationship between prevalence of HAI and increasing age (P<.0001) in hospital inpatients in Scotland. Urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal infections represented the largest burden of HAI in the 75–84- and over-85-year age groups, and surgical-site infections represented the largest burden in inpatients under 75 years of age. The prevalence of urinary catheterization was higher in each of the over-65 age groups (P<.0001). Importantly, this study reveals that a high prevalence of HAI in inpatients over the age of 65 years is found across a range of specialties within acute hospital care. An increased prevalence of HAI was observed in medical, orthopedic, and surgical specialties.
HAI is an important outcome indicator of acute inpatient hospital care, and our analysis demonstrates that HAI prevalence increases linearly with increasing age (P<.0001). Focusing interventions on preventing urinary tract infection and gastrointestinal infections would have the biggest public health benefit. To ensure patient safety, the importance of age as a risk factor for HAI cannot be overemphasized to those working in all areas of acute care.
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