The Panama Canal (PC) has recently been in the world spotlight. In August 2014, it celebrated 100 years of uninterrupted service and, in June 2016, the expansion project for the canal was inaugurated. The final project involved building a third set of locks. Once the canal started to operate, it could be seen that the way in which vessels transited the canal remained the same. However, the dimensions of locks and their revised operating procedures have had an effect on vessel size and the manoeuvres for the larger vessels. After the first transit on 26 June 2016, it was possible to have access to data on the new lockage systems for Neopanamax ships. The thorough statistical study of these new datasets (composed of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multivariate regression and statistical quality control techniques) has shown the main drivers of transit time across the Cocolí and Agua Clara locks. It has also made it possible to test the learning curve of Panama Canal pilots in the newly expanded canal. The effects of pilot training on the time it takes to transit through the locks, direction of entry in each lock, the type of vessel, vessel dimensions and the use of different types of manoeuvres have been analysed. The results are used to characterise and help optimise the performance of this new and unique lock system.