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Dietary choline, which is converted to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in intestinal enterocytes, may benefit inflammatory bowel disease patients who typically have reduced intestinal choline and PC. The present study investigated the effect of dietary choline supplementation on colitis severity and intestinal mucosal homoeostasis using a Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis model. C57BL/6J mice were fed three isoenergetic diets differing in choline level: choline-deficient (CD), choline-sufficient (CS) and choline-excess (CE) for 3 weeks prior to infection with C. rodentium. The effect of dietary choline levels on the gut microbiota was also characterised in the absence of infection using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At 7 d following infection, the levels of C. rodentium in CD mice were significantly greater than that in CS or CE groups (P < 0·05). CD mice exhibited greater damage to the surface epithelium and goblet cell loss than the CS or CE mice, which was consistent with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the colon. In addition, CD group exhibited decreased concentrations of PC in the colon after C. rodentium infection, although the decrease was not observed in the absence of challenge. Select genera, including Allobaculum and Turicibacter, were enriched in response to dietary choline deficiency; however, there was minimal impact on the total bacterial abundance or the overall structure of the gut microbiota. Our results suggest that insufficient dietary choline intake aggravates the severity of colitis and demonstrates an essential role of choline in maintaining intestinal homoeostasis.
The use of crystals other than silicon for x-ray optics is becoming more common for many challenging experiments such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. As more—and more specialized—spectrometers become available at many synchrotron radiation facilities, interest in pushing the limits of experimental energy resolution has increased. The potentially large improvements in resolution and efficiency that nonsilicon optics offer are beginning to be realized. This article covers the background and state of the art for nonsilicon crystal optics with a focus on a resolution of 10 meV or better, concentrating on compounds that form trigonal crystals, including sapphire, quartz, and lithium niobate, rather than the more conventional cubic materials, including silicon, diamond, and germanium.
To evaluate a computer-assisted point-prevalence survey (CAPPS) for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs).
A 754-bed teaching hospital in the Netherlands.
For the internal validation of a CAPPS for HAIs, 2,526 patients were included. All patient records were retrospectively reviewed in depth by 2 infection control practitioners (ICPs) to determine which patients had suffered an HAI. Preventie van Ziekenhuisinfecties door Surveillance (PREZIES) criteria were used. Following this internal validation, 13 consecutive CAPPS were performed in a prospective study from January to March 2013 to determine weekly, monthly, and quarterly HAI point prevalence. Finally, a CAPPS was externally validated by PREZIES (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [RIVM], Bilthoven, Netherlands). In all evaluations, discrepancies were resolved by consensus.
In our series of CAPPS, 83% of the patients were automatically excluded from detailed review by the ICP. The sensitivity of the method was 91%. The time spent per hospital-wide CAPPS was ~3 hours. External validation showed a negative predictive value of 99.1% for CAPPS.
CAPPS proved to be a sensitive, accurate, and efficient method to determine serial weekly point-prevalence HAI rates in our hospital.
Neubert, Mainert, Kretzschmar, and Greiff (2015) plea to integrate the 21st century skills of complex problem solving (CPS) and collaborative problem solving (ColPS) in the assessment and development suite of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists, given the expected increase in nonroutine and interactive tasks in the new workplace. At the same time, they promote new ways of assessing these skills using computer-based microworlds, enabling the systematic variation of problem features in assessment. Neubert and colleagues’ (2015) suggestions are a valuable step in connecting differential psychologists’ models of human differences and functioning with human resources professionals’ interest in understanding and predicting behavior at work. We concur that CPS and ColPS are important transversal skills, useful for I-O psychologists, but these are only two babies of a single family, and the domain of 21st century skills includes other families of a different kind that are also with utility for I-O psychologists. The current contribution is meant to broaden this interesting discussion in two important ways. We clarify that CPS and ColPS need to be considered in the context of a wider set of 21st century skills with an origin in the education domain, and we highlight a number of crucial steps that still need to be taken before “getting started” (Neubert et al., 2015, p. last page of the discussion) with this taxonomic framework. But first, we feel the need to slightly reframe the relevance of considering 21st century skills in I-O psychology by shifting the attention from narrow task-related skills to the broader domain of career management competencies.
In the presence of such a powerhouse lineup of Asianists I think I will tiptoe off to the other end of Lieberman's Eurasia and presume on my unique qualifications in this company as having published over twenty pages for the general reader on the France of Louis XIV and fifteen on the Russia of Peter the Great. Also, I have a bee in my bonnet at the moment about how the world changed between 1770 and 1830, and will have most to say about what Lieberman offers on that period. I owe Jerry Bentley a review article on all this for the Journal of World History, because he got me a review copy of the large work of Jürgen Osterhammel, Die Verwandlung der Welt: Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts. I also got hooked by listening in on a fine conference at the Clark Library in Los Angeles in 2008, which led to The Age of Revolutions in Global Context, edited by David Armitage and Sanjay Subrahmanyam. A less recent book which I think is an under-appreciated breakthrough for this effort is Chris Bayly's Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780–1830.
The connections summarized in this chapter show the early and middle Qing Empire involved in global changes. Tea from China was one of the transoceanic consumer goods that helped to stimulate the steady growth of intercontinental maritime connections and the emergence in northwestern Europe of prosperous and dynamic bourgeois societies. Chinese porcelain was less important in trade-value terms but very important for European consumption patterns and rêves chinois. The export of tea shaped several sectors of the south Chinese economy, provided a convenient flow of revenue for the imperial household, and drew an inflow of silver vital to the monetization of the Chinese economy. By 1780–1800 other waves of world-historical change were reaching Fujian and Guangdong: ships from the new United States, some of them bringing Pacific sea otter skins and Hawaiian sandalwood; and private traders from the emerging British Empire in India bringing opium. The Qing rulers viewed these maritime connections with trepidation, recalling the early Qing–Ming loyalist resistance along the coast and never sure of the loyalty of Chinese settled in Southeast Asian ports. The maritime Chinese returned the distrust; very little of their rich knowledge of European and Southeast Asian trading partners made its way into print or into the files of the Qing bureaucracy. Qing wariness of the cultural contamination brought by Roman Catholic missionaries sometimes affected their attitudes toward European traders, especially the Portuguese of Macao. The result was a China involved in an interactive early modern world in a variety of ways but with a ruling elite largely in denial, especially about the maritime connections. In the great trade at Canton, the traders and the Qing got what they wanted with a minimum of exchange of opinion and information and almost no foreign travel within the empire. Europeans could and did trade without sending tribute embassies to Beijing.
Early Qing, 1644–1690
The patterns of relations with maritime Europeans in the 1690s were different from what they had been in the 1630s. The changes in the intervening decades cannot be understood without attention to the stages of Qing conquest and dynastic consolidation, but some of the most striking changes, like the Zheng conquest of Taiwan, were peripheral to that process or, like the expulsion of the Portuguese from Japan, were completely unrelated to it. Macao survived the immense blow of the exclusion from Japan, strengthened its trading connections with the sandalwood islands of eastern Indonesia, and eventually emerged as an important center of the Indian Ocean–South China Sea “country trade” of the eighteenth century. However, it did not recover its earlier prosperity or its centrality in Sino-European relations. The Dutch and Zheng Zhilong, sometimes competing and sometimes cooperating, were not slow to take advantage of the immense opportunity for trade with Japan presented to them by the collapse of the expulsion of the Portuguese. They already had begun to expand their trade to Nagasaki as the Portuguese position there disintegrated in the late 1630s and continued to do so in the early 1640s. Quantities of Sino-Japanese trade between 1644 and the reopening of Qing maritime trade in 1684 are difficult to sort out.
The essays collected in this volume are revised versions of chapters originally prepared for publication in volumes 8 and 9 of The Cambridge History of China. The authors have undertaken this separate publication because they believe their subjects are connected with each other in ways that might not be apparent in the contexts of the two Cambridge History volumes and because they wish to make them more accessible to scholars who might not notice their appearance in those volumes and would appreciate having access to them in this more compact and convenient format. We have particularly in mind our colleagues in various areas of study of early modern European relations with Asia who do not specialize in the study of China – scholars of the Islamic world, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea – including historians of Christian missions elsewhere in Asia. All of these studies are in the midst of vigorous revivals. Specialized conferences and publications abound, so that we are likely to meet these intellectual collaborators at a meeting in Macao or Pondicherry, at a Vasco da Gama quincentenary conference in Australia, or at a meeting in Europe focused on the career of a particular missionary. Our studies and those of all these colleagues are contributing more or less deliberately to the very exciting efforts to develop a non-Eurocentric historiography of the early modern world.
Our chapters offer much context, data, and bibliographic guidance for those who wish to make further contributions to the already flourishing literature on early modern world trade, in which China’s provision of high-quality manufactures and tea and its nearly insatiable appetite for silver were important driving forces. They will also be of use to others working on world history topics that have been energetically discussed only very recently, such as the comparison of the internal authority structures and foreign relations of state systems, the indigenization of religions of foreign origins, and the dynamics of multiethnic societies, especially those in port cities. We hope that our colleagues working on all these themes in relation to China and other parts of Asia will find in this book some small payment on the great debt we owe them for their recent sophisticated studies and summaries. Finally, we have enjoyed contacts with and encouragement from colleagues in the People’s Republic of China in ways we could scarcely imagine when we began work on these chapters in the 1980s. Chinese scholars long were frustrated by the difficulties of learning foreign languages and obtaining access to non-Chinese sources, but a younger generation is overcoming these obstacles and becoming full participants in the international networks of scholarship on the topics discussed in this volume. Here too we hope the volume will be of use in maintaining dialogue and establishing some sound basic narratives.