To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Healthy young adults often demonstrate a leftward spatial bias called “pseudoneglect” which often diminishes with aging. One hypothesis for this phenomenon is an age-related deterioration in right hemisphere functions (right hemi-aging). If true, then a greater rightward bias should be evident on all spatial attention tasks regardless of content. Another hypothesis is a decrease in asymmetrical hemispheric activation with age (HAROLD). If true, older participants may show reduced bias in all spatial tasks, regardless of leftward or rightward biasing of specific spatial content.
Seventy right-handed healthy participants, 33 younger (21–40) and 37 older (60–78), were asked to bisect solid and character-letter lines as well as to perform left and right trisections of solid lines.
Both groups deviated toward the left on solid line bisections and left trisections. Both groups deviated toward the right on right trisections and character line bisections. In all tasks, the older participants were more accurate than the younger participants.
The finding that older participants were more accurate than younger participants across all bisection and trisection conditions suggests a decrease in the asymmetrical hemispheric activation of these specialized networks important in the allocation of contralateral spatial attention or spatial action intention.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of directed and sustained attention on the allocation of visuospatial attention. Healthy people often have left lateral and upward vertical spatial attentional biases. However, it is not known whether there will be an increase in bias toward the attended portion of the stimulus when volitional spatial attention is allocated to a portion of a stimulus, whether there are asymmetrical spatial alterations of these biases, and how sustained attention influences these biases. Methods: We assessed spatial bias in 36 healthy, right-handed participants using a variant of horizontal and vertical line bisections. Participants were asked to focus on one or the other end of vertical or horizontal lines or entire vertical or horizontal lines, and then to bisect the line either immediately or after a 20 second delay. Results: We found a significant main effect of attentional focus and an interaction between attentional focus and prolonged viewing with delayed bisection. Focusing on a certain portion of the line resulting in a significant deviation toward the attended portion and prolonged viewing of the line prior to bisection significantly enhanced the degree of deviation toward the attended portion. Conclusions: The enhanced bias with directed and sustained attention may be useful modifications of the line bisection test, particularly in clinical populations. Thus, future studies should determine whether prolonged viewing with delayed bisection and spatially focused attention reveals attentional biases in patients with hemispheric lesions who perform normally on the traditional line bisection test. (JINS, 2019, 25, 65–71)
Objectives: Healthy individuals often have a leftward and upward attentional spatial bias; however, there is a reduction of this leftward bias with aging. The right hemisphere mediates leftward spatial attention and age-related reduction of right hemispheric activity may account for this reduced leftward bias. The right hemisphere also appears to be responsible for upward bias, and this upward bias might reduce with aging. Alternatively, whereas the dorsal visual stream allocates attention downward, the ventral stream allocates attention upward. Since with aging there is a greater atrophy of the dorsal than ventral stream, older participants may reveal a greater upward bias. The main purpose of this study was to learn if aging influences the vertical allocation of spatial attention. Methods: Twenty-six young (17 males; mean age 44.62±2.57 years) and 25 healthy elderly (13 males; mean age 72.04±.98 years), right-handed adults performed line bisections using 24 vertical lines (24 cm long and 2 mm thick) aligned with their midsagittal plane. Results: Older adults had a significantly greater upward bias than did younger adults. Conclusions: Normal upward attentional bias increases with aging, possibly due to an age-related reduction of the dorsal attentional stream that is responsible for the allocation of downward attention. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1121–1124)
The tribulations suffered by the aging Sir John Denham following his second marriage in 1665 to the young and beautiful Lady Mary Brooke were the subject of scandalized gossip amongst his contemporaries. Little is known about his first wife Anne Cotton of Whittington, Gloucestershire, whom he married in 1634 when he was only 19. Denham benefited considerably from this marriage for, with her sister Appolina, Anne was heir to the estates of a prosperous Gloucestershire gentry family that included the manor of Horsenden, Buckinghamshire, as well as the manor of Whittington and the estate of Gubshill, near Tewkesbury. At a division of the estates between the sisters, Horsenden was assigned to Anne and Whittington to Appolina, but, at some point in or soon after 1642, Anne also inherited Whittington, together with its manor house now known as Whittington Court.
Right hemispheric damage (RHD) caused by strokes often induce attentional disorders such as hemispatial neglect. Most patients with neglect over time have a reduction in their ipsilesional spatial attentional bias. Despite this improvement in spatial bias, many patients remain disabled. The cause of this chronic disability is not fully known, but even in the absence of a directional spatial attentional bias, patients with RHD may have an impaired ability to accurately and precisely allocate their spatial attention. This inaccuracy and variable directional allocation of spatial attention may be revealed by repeated performance on a spatial attentional task, such as line bisection (LBT). Participants with strokes of their right versus left (LHD) hemisphere along with healthy controls (HC) performed 24 consecutive trials of 24 cm horizontal line bisections. A vector analysis of the magnitude and direction of deviations from midline, as well as their standard deviations (SD), were calculated. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the LHD, RHD and HC groups in overall spatial bias (mean bisection including magnitude and direction); however, the RHD group had a significantly larger variability of their spatial errors (SD), and made larger errors (from midline) than did the LHD and HC groups. There was a curvilinear relationship between the RHD participants’ performance variability and their severity of their inaccuracy. Therefore, when compared to HC and LHD, the RHD subjects’ performance on the LBT is more variable and inaccurate. (JINS, 2015, 21, 373–377)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of nebulized magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in acute asthma in children from the perspective of the UK National Health Service and personal social services.
Methods: An economic evaluation was conducted based on evidence from a randomized placebo controlled multi-center trial of nebulized MgSO4 in severe acute asthma in children. Participants comprised 508 children aged 2–16 years presenting to an emergency department or a children's assessment unit with severe acute asthma across thirty hospitals in the United Kingdom. Children were randomly allocated to receive nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium bromide mixed with either 2.5 ml of isotonic MgSO4 or 2.5 ml of isotonic saline on three occasions at 20-min intervals. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were constructed around the Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) after 60 min of treatment; whilst cost-utility outcomes were constructed around the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) metric. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to present cost-effectiveness acceptability curves at alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds for either: (i) a unit reduction in ASS; or (ii) an additional QALY.
Results: MgSO4 had a 75.1 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 1,000 (EUR 1,148) per unit decrement in ASS threshold, an 88.0 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of reducing the ASS) and a 36.6 percent probability of being less costly. MgSO4 also had a 67.6 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 20,000 (EUR 22,957) per QALY gained threshold, an 8.5 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of generating increased QALYs) and a 69.1 percent probability of being less costly. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the economic evaluation were particularly sensitive to the methods used for QALY estimation.
Conclusions: The probability of cost-effectiveness of nebulized isotonic MgSO4, given as an adjuvant to standard treatment of severe acute asthma in children, is less than 70 percent across accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds for an additional QALY.
It is a matter of some difficulty even to demonstrate that the blood is an alkaline fluid. The reason is that its red colour masks the reaction. The plasma itself is, however, practically colourless, and by allowing it to mingle with red litmus solution, after its corpuscles have been strained away, a blue tint may be observed. This was effected by Liebreich, who moistened dry neutral plates of plaster of Paris with litmus solution.
Streptococcus uberis is the most common cause of clinical mastitis at calving in pasture-based dairy cows. Results of experimental inoculations were compared with cows' previous history of infection to help define a model for susceptibility to Str. uberis mastitis. Cows used had either no apparent history of intramammary infection (IMI) by Str. uberis or other major mastitis pathogens throughout their productive lifetime (‘apparently uninfected’; AUI), or had a confirmed history of Str. uberis IMI (‘historically infected’; HI). Cows were exposed to Str. uberis in sequential steps: dipping of the teat end (DIP; n=53 cows); a teat canal inoculation (TCI; n=33 cows); and, finally, intramammary inoculation challenge (IC; n=7 cows). Only cows that remained free of infection at each step progressed to the next phase. Infection rates were similar between AUI or HI cows following the DIP (9 and 17% respectively), or the TCI (75 and 68% respectively). Physical and biochemical traits of cows were examined. Analysis of traits prior to inoculations implied that HI cows produced more milk fat, while AUI cows tended to have longer teat canals. Analysis of traits for cows that became infected following DIP, implied that there was a positive association with milk fat production and negative association with somatic cell count (SCC), while there was a positive association with the duration of p.m. milking, and negative association with SCC in those cows that became infected following TCI. Only AUI cows became infected following the IC inoculation. Similarity in response to experimental inoculation between the two groups suggests that the current dip or teat canal inoculation (using a 3-mm depth of inoculation) models are not good predictors of natural resistance to Str. uberis. However, a population of cows was identified that remained uninfected after DIP, TCI and IC, and may comprise a resistant phenotype.
Multiple cultures were positive for Bacillus cereus during routine quality assurance testing of a pharmacy robot that prepares intravenous medications. An investigation confirmed bacterial contamination of the robot as well as drug product made by the robot. The process and outcomes of the investigation are described in this report.
The financial impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in operation for more than 11 years was determined by calculating the reduction in antimicrobial expenditures minus program labor costs. Depending on the method of inflation adjustment used, the program was associated with average cost savings of $920,070 to $2,064,441 per year.
Not the least remarkable feature of Das Lied von der Erde is its use of chromatic and pentatonic elements in a manner that renders them both distinct and yet homogenous, almost as though Mahler were anticipating Bartók in demonstrating the modernity of ancient scales when they came in collision with twentieth-century harmony. There have been several considerations of this phenomenon, none more interesting than Stephen Hefling's exploration of specific Eastern forms of pentatonicism (which again are oddly reminiscent of Bartók, at least in the analyses of Lendvai). Although he views the opening movement of Das Lied as the most fertile area for such study, ‘Der Abschied’ provides an equally compelling study in contrast and integration of ancient and modern. Partly this is a reflection of its extremely pared-down motivic material. Undoubtedly the heterophonic character of many passages also contributes to this effect. The conceptualization of the phenomenon by Adorno as a form of composed inauthenticity lays particular stress on the exotic but also stresses a curious hangover from the world of the New German School – the ‘Nature’ symphony, but bereft of all pomposity. To what extent 'Der Abschied' creates ‘Nature music’ from fragments of pentatonicism and traditional diatonicism, while stamping his own personality on the result through quite novel and seldom analyzed chromatic effects, is the subject of this article. How far his achievement was anticipated in his less illustrious predecessors and paralleled by such contemporaries as Wolf is also considered. Adorno's reading is qualified, by considering how far exoticism can be explained in terms of non-diatonic scales and how far Mahler's view of nature derives from a specifically Austrian tradition. Finally, consideration of this latter tradition is used to reconsider Mahler's role in the picture of ‘fin-de-siècle Vienna’, which in recent years has proved increasingly difficult to reconcile with Schorske's classic interpretation.
Geothermal energy has the potential to provide long-term, secure base-load energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Accessible geothermal energy from the Earth's interior supplies heat for direct use and to generate electric energy. Climate change is not expected to have any major impacts on the effectiveness of geothermal energy utilization, but the widespread deployment of geothermal energy could play a meaningful role in mitigating climate change. In electricity applications, the commercialization and use of engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGS) may play a central role in establishing the size of the contribution of geothermal energy to long-term GHG emissions reductions.
The natural replenishment of heat from earth processes and modern reservoir management techniques enable the sustainable use of geothermal energy as a low-emission, renewable resource. With appropriate resource management, the tapped heat from an active reservoir is continuously restored by natural heat production, conduction and convection from surrounding hotter regions, and the extracted geothermal fluids are replenished by natural recharge and by injection of the depleted (cooled) fluids.
Global geothermal technical potential is comparable to global primary energy supply in 2008. For electricity generation, the technical potential of geothermal energy is estimated to be between 118 EJ/yr (to 3 km depth) and 1,109 EJ/yr (to 10 km depth). For direct thermal uses, the technical potential is estimated to range from 10 to 312 EJ/yr. The heat extracted to achieve these technical potentials can be fully or partially replenished over the long term by the continental terrestrial heat flow of 315 EJ/yr at an average flux of 65 mW/m2.
Although dialyzed patients often have cognitive problems, little is known about the nature of these deficits. We hypothesized that, in contrast to semantic fluency relying mainly on temporal lobes, phonemic fluency, preferentially depending on functions of frontal-subcortical systems, would be particularly sensitive to the constellation of physiological pathological processes associated with end-stage renal disease and dialysis. Therefore, we longitudinally compared phonemic and semantic fluency performance between 49 dialyzed patients and 30 controls. Overall, patients performed below controls only on the phonemic fluency task. Furthermore, their performance on this task declined over time, whereas there was no change in semantic fluency. Moreover, this decline was related to the presence of hypertension and higher blood urea nitrogen. We suggest that these findings may be due to a combination of vascular and topic effects that impact more on fronto-subcortical than temporal lobe networks, but this speculation requires direct confirmation. (JINS, 2012, 18, 162–167)
The objective of this study is to learn if participants with Parkinson disease (PD), when compared to normal controls, are impaired in making simultaneous but independent right and left hand movements. Participants were tested with Luria's Alternating Hand Postures (AHP) test and modified AHP tests. Twelve PD participants without dementia and twelve matched controls were assessed for their ability to perform the parallel AHP test (both hands remaining in the same coronal plane) and with modifications of this test into swimming (alternative arm extension with finger extension and arm flexion with finger flexion) and reverse swimming (alternative arm extension—finger flexion and arm flexion—finger extension) movements. The participants with PD were significantly impaired when performing the parallel and the reverse swimming movements AHP tests, but not impaired on the swimming movements AHP test. Swimming movements may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically more primitive and not as heavily dependent on frontal-basal ganglia networks; thus performance of swimming movements during the parallel AHP test may decrease this test's sensitivity. (JINS, 2011, 17, 702–708)
Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right–left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial “where” asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research. (JINS, 2011, 17, 732–739)