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The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
Semantic dementia causes progressive communication difficulties that significantly impact on the person and their family. There is a paucity of research examining conversation skills in this condition and associated interventions to support interaction, such as life-story work. This study used a multiple case study design to: (a) explore the everyday conversation experiences of five individuals with semantic dementia and their spouses; and (b) examine how intervention using interaction-focused life-story work could support communication needs. A total of 74 home visits were conducted over a longitudinal period. An innovative combination of conversation analysis of video and audio data alongside biographical interviewing was used. Information derived from these strands was utilised to design an individually tailored life-story intervention. Cross-case analysis examined the contribution of life-story work to interaction and other aspects of care. Results showed that a range of challenges and skills were present within conversation. Life-story work was delivered in all cases using a variety of formats and the work could be conceptualised under various points of connection: interactional, emotional, new, practical and future. Detailed assessment was important to define aims for intervention and appropriate format(s) for life-story work for the individual concerned. Outcomes for communication in this study were not solely about supporting the telling of facts about the person's life but represented a broader focus to facilitate embodied and emotional connections. This study demonstrates that creativity within life-story work is important to foster social interaction, beyond information exchange, using both verbal and non-verbal behaviours. In addition, video data show promise for exploring in-the-moment outcomes for research and practice, particularly to capture the non-verbal dimensions of this work.
The emergence of punk in Britain (1976–1978) is recalled and documented as a moment of rebellion, one in which youth culture was seen to challenge accepted values and forms of behaviour, and to set in motion a new kind of cultural politics. In this article we do two things. First, we ask how far punk's challenge extended. Did it penetrate those political, cultural and social elites against which it set itself? And second, we reflect on the problem of recovering the history and politics of moments such as punk, and on the value of archives to such exercises in recuperation. In pursuit of both tasks, we make use of a wide range of historical sources, relying on these rather than on retrospective oral or autobiographical accounts. We set our findings against the narratives offered by both subcultural and mainstream histories of punk. We show how punk's impact on elites can be detected in the rhetoric of the popular media, and in aspects of the practice of local government and the police. Its impact on other elites (e.g. central government or the monarchy) is much harder to discern. These insights are important both for enriching our understanding of the political significance of punk and for how we approach the historical record left by popular music.
Geochemical and related studies have been made of near-surface sediments from the River Clyde estuary and adjoining areas, extending from Glasgow to the N, and W as far as the Holy Loch on the W coast of Scotland, UK. Multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar and shallow seismic data, taken with core information, indicate that a shallow layer of modern sediment, often less than a metre thick, rests on earlier glacial and post-glacial sediments. The offshore Quaternary history can be aligned with onshore sequences, with the recognition of buried drumlins, settlement of muds from quieter water, probably behind an ice dam, and later tidal delta deposits. The geochemistry of contaminants within the cores also indicates shallow contaminated sediments, often resting on pristine pre-industrial deposits at depths less than 1m. The distribution of different contaminants with depth in the sediment, such as Pb (and Pb isotopes), organics and radionuclides, allow chronologies of contamination from different sources to be suggested. Dating was also attempted using microfossils, radiocarbon and 210Pb, but with limited success. Some of the spatial distribution of contaminants in the surface sediments can be related to grain-size variations. Contaminants are highest, both in absolute terms and in enrichment relative to the natural background, in the urban and inner estuary and in the Holy Loch, reflecting the concentration of industrial activity.
In cheese, a negative oxidation-reduction (redox) potential is required for the stability of aroma, especially that associated with volatile sulphur compounds. To control the redox potential during ripening, redox agents were added to the salted curd of Cheddar cheese before pressing. The control cheese contained only salt, while different oxidising or reducing agents were added with the NaCl to the experimental cheeses. KIO3 (at 0·05, 0·1 and 1%, w/w) was used as the oxidising agent while cysteine (at 2%, w/w) and Na2S2O4 (at 0·05 and 0·1%, w/w) were used as reducing agents. During ripening the redox potential of the cheeses made with the reducing agents did not differ significantly from the control cheese (Eh ≈ −120 mV) while the cheeses made with 0·1 and 0·05% KIO3 had a significantly higher and positive redox potential in the first month of ripening. Cheese made with 1% KIO3 had positive values of redox potential throughout ripening but no starter lactic acid bacteria survived in this cheese; however, numbers of starter organisms in all other cheeses were similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds clearly separated the cheeses made with the reducing agents from cheeses made with the oxidising agents at 2 month of ripening. Cheeses with reducing agents were characterized by the presence of sulphur compounds whereas cheeses made with KIO3 were characterized mainly by aldehydes. At 6 month of ripening, separation by PCA was less evident. These findings support the hypothesis that redox potential could be controlled during ripening and that this parameter has an influence on the development of cheese flavour.
Tucked away on the b-side of the Sex Pistols’ third single, ‘Pretty Vacant’ (1977), is a cover version of The Stooges’ ‘No Fun’. The song had long been a staple of the Pistols’ live set; on record, however, Johnny Rotten chose to open the track with a diatribe against those attempting to imbue the punk culture he helped instigate with broader socio-economic, cultural or political implications. ‘Here we go now’, he snarled, ‘a sociology lecture, with a bit of psychology, a bit of neurology, a bit of fuckology’.
The emergence of new empirical evidence and ethical debate about families created by assisted reproduction has called into question the current regulatory frameworks that govern reproductive donation in many countries. In this multidisciplinary book, social scientists, ethicists and lawyers offer fresh perspectives on the current challenges facing the regulation of reproductive donation and suggest possible ways forward. They address questions such as: what might people want to know about the circumstances of their conception? Should we limit the number of children donors can produce? Is it wrong to pay donors or to reward them with cut-price fertility treatments? Is overseas surrogacy exploitative of women from poor communities? Combining the latest empirical research with analysis of ethics, policy and legislation, the book focuses on the regulation of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy at a time when more people are considering assisted reproduction and when new techniques and policies are underway.
Learning to live with a diagnosis of dementia is a complex process. Being able to talk about the diagnosis to others represents a major challenge for some people with dementia. This study explores the experiences of people with dementia, and members of their families, around the task of informing others during the six months immediately following their diagnosis of dementia. Five people with dementia living in the community, and their immediate family members, were recruited into an ethnographic study. Data were collected through recorded interviews and participant observation, and were analysed through a grounded theory method within a continuing iterative process. Findings suggest that participants recognised the need to tell others about their diagnosis but these conversations were difficult to initiate and manage, and hindered the processing of emotions. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for practice.
Smoking cessation interventions during routine clinical encounters by health professionals have the potential to reach smokers and facilitate cessation. Although psychologists might appear to be ideal providers of such interventions, international research suggests that their provision is limited. This paper reports the results of a survey conducted in NSW, Australia, of psychologists’ (n = 72) smoking intervention practices, attitudes, and barriers to providing such care. Less than half of the respondents reported assessing smoking status for ‘all or nearly all’ of their clients. Across a range of smoking cessation intervention types, the most frequent response given indicated provision to ‘none or almost none’ of clients who smoked. Only 13% of respondents indicated even ‘advising cessation’ to ‘all or nearly all’ of their smoking clients. Barriers included concern about negative influence on the therapeutic relationship, inadequacy of training and lack of confidence to intervene. Respondents were less likely to provide intervention for smoking than for cannabis, methamphetamine ‘ice’, and alcohol. The study suggests that the potential of Australian psychologists to assist smokers to quit is not being realised, and that there is a need to address the barriers to care provision.