To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
The objective of this work was to describe treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction (TESD) and tolerability following a switch from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI: citalopram, paroxetine, or sertraline) monotherapy to vortioxetine or escitalopram monotherapy in adults with well-treated major depressive disorder (MDD) and SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.
Data were analyzed from the primary study, an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, head-to-head study in which participants with well-treated depressive symptoms but experiencing TESD with SSRIs were directly switched to flexible doses (10/20 mg) of vortioxetine or escitalopram. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire-14 (CSFQ-14), efficacy by the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores (MADRS) and Clinicians Global Impression of Severity/Improvement (CGI-S/CGI-I), and tolerability by adverse events. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by pre-switch SSRI therapy where possible, and by participant characteristics.
Greater improvements in TESD were seen in the vortioxetine compared with escitalopram groups based on: participant demographics (≤45 years, women; P = 0.045), prior SSRI treatment (P = 0.044), number of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) (1–3; P = 0.001), and duration of prior SSRI therapy (>1 year; P = 0.001). Prior SSRI treatment did not appear to influence the incidence or severity of TEAEs, except for nausea. Regardless of prior SSRI, both treatments maintained antidepressant efficacy after 8 weeks.
Results suggest that vortioxetine is a safe and effective switch therapy for treating SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in adults with well-treated MDD. Also, improvement in sexual dysfunction with vortioxetine or escitalopram may be influenced by prior SSRI usage, sex, age, and history of MDEs.
Pentaerythritol (PE) and neopentylglycol (NPG) are organic molecular crystals which have hydrogen-bonded lattices with layered- and chain-type structures, respectively. The PE undergoes solid-state phase transitions at 416K, from tetragonal to a cubic (γ’) structure and NPG also undergoes this transition at 317K from a monoclinic to a cubic (γ) structure. The phase transitions in binary PE-NPG solid solutions show more than one solid-solid transition in which the NPG-rich β transforms to γ at a constant temperature but the transition of the PE-rich a phase to γ’ passes through a two-phase field at a temperature that varies as a function of composition. Structural analyses by high-temperature x-ray diffractometry have revealed some new, interesting transitions. A phase diagram has been constructed for 0-30 mol% NPG in the PE-NPG system, using x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results, and work is in progress to complete this diagram. The variation of lattice parameters as a function of temperature in the α, γ and γ’ phases for PE+20 mol% NPG are presented here, together with a discussion of phase transitions for certain compositions.
It has been proposed that vascular disease is the mechanism linking depression and cognition, but prospective studies have not supported this hypothesis. This study aims to investigate the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms, cognition and cerebrovascular disease using a well-characterised prospective cohort.
Data came from waves 1 (2005–2007) and 2 (2007–2009) of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (n = 462; mean age = 78.3 years).
At wave 1, there was an association between depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume [b = 0.016, t(414) = 2.34, p = 0.020]. Both depressive symptoms [b = −0.058, t(413) = −2.64, p = 0.009] and WMH volume [b = −0.011, t(413) = −3.77, p < 0.001], but not stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) [b = −0.328, t(413) = −1.90, p = 0.058], were independently associated with lower cognition. Prospectively, cerebrovascular disease was not found to predict increasing depressive symptoms [stroke/TIA: b = −0.349, t(374.7) = −0.76, p = 0.448; WMH volume: b = 0.007, t(376.3) = 0.875, p = 0.382]. Depressive symptoms predicted increasing WMH severity [b = 0.012, t(265.9) = −3.291, p = 0.001], but not incident stroke/TIA (odds ratio = 0.995; CI 0.949–1.043; p = 0.820). When examined in separate models, depressive symptoms [b = −0.027, t(373.5) = −2.16, p = 0.032] and a history of stroke/TIA [b = −0.460, t(361.2) = −4.45, p < 0.001], but not WMH volume [b = 0.001, t(362.3) = −0.520, p = 0.603], predicted declines in cognition. When investigated in a combined model, a history of stroke/TIA remained a predictor of cognitive decline [b = −0.443, t(360.6) = −4.28, p < 0.001], whilst depressive symptoms did not [b = −0.012, t(359.7) = −0.96, p = 0.336].
This study is contrasted with previous prospective studies which indicate that depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline independently of vascular disease. Future research should focus on further exploring the vascular mechanisms underpinning the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognition.
We document that a firm’s culture, specifically, its religiosity, affects its cost of debt. Firms in higher-religiosity counties have higher credit ratings and lower debt costs. The impact of religiosity is stronger for firms with greater information asymmetry and during recessions. Further, religiosity has additional explanatory power for the cost of bank loans (but not the cost of public bonds) beyond its impact through ratings. This supports the argument that banks have superior abilities in pricing soft information, such as corporate culture. Finally, the impact of religiosity is stronger when the lender is a small bank.
We report the discovery of the ultra-luminous quasi-stellar object SMSS J215728.21−360215.1 with magnitude z = 16.9 and W4 = 7.42 at redshift 4.75. Given absolute magnitudes of M145, AB = −29.3, M300, AB = −30.12, and logLbol/Lbol, ⊙ = 14.84, it is the quasi-stellar object with the highest unlensed UV-optical luminosity currently known in the Universe. It was found by combining proper-motion data from Gaia DR2 with photometry from SkyMapper DR1 and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In the GAIA database, it is an isolated single source and thus unlikely to be strongly gravitationally lensed. It is also unlikely to be a beamed source as it is not discovered in the radio domain by either NRAO-VLA Sky Survey or Sydney University Molonglo Southern Survey. It is classed as a weak-emission-line quasi-stellar object and possesses broad absorption line features. A lightcurve from ATLAS spanning the time from 2015 October to 2017 December shows little sign of variability.
Pioneering author and media critic, Dr. Jack Shaheen devoted his life to identifying and contesting damaging stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims in American media and pop culture. Arabs and Muslims were offered up as cartoon caricatures—dagger wielding, evil, ridiculous, hypersexualized, inhumane and incompetent “others.” Dr. Shaheen quickly recognized their shared genealogy to the portrayals of other racialized groups including Jews, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and African Americans. Always in the spirit of engaged dialogue, he was outspoken in defense of any group that was wrongfully stereotyped and vilified.
Hundreds of penetrant risk loci have been identified across different neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), and these often involve rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs), which can involve one or more genes. Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs are long thought to share 100% of their genomic information. However, genetic differences in the form of postzygotic somatic variants have been reported recently both in typically developing (TD) and in clinically discordant MZ pairs. We sought to investigate the contribution of rare CNVs in 100 twin pairs enriched for NDD phenotypes with a particular focus on postzygotic CNVs in MZ pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Illumina Infinium PsychArray. In our sample, no postzygotic de novo CNVs were found in 55 MZ twin pairs, including the 13 pairs discordant for ASD. We did detect a higher rate of CNVs overlapping genes involved in disorders of the nervous system, such as a rare deletion affecting HNRNPU, in MZ pairs discordant and concordant for ASD in comparison with TD pairs (p = .02). Our results are in concordance with earlier findings that postzygotic de novo CNV events are typically rare in genomic DNA derived from saliva or blood, and suggests that the discordance of NDDs in our sample of twins is not explained by discordant CNVs. Still, studies investigating postzygotic variation in MZ discordant twins using DNA from different tissues and single cells and higher resolution genomics are needed in the future.
Deep, medium resolution, long-slit spectrophotometric data have been taken for a number of high-excitation planetary nebulae, covering a wavelength range from 3100 Å to 7200 Å with some selected regions observed at higher resolution. For about half the objects, the whole optical region has been observed, from 3100 Å to 11600 Å. Accurate flux calibration is achieved over this whole wavelength range. These data allow a detailed quantitative study of the Bowen fluorescence mechanism and the charge transfer reaction in planetary nebulae, the primary goal of this program. In this paper measurements of O2+ Bowen fluorescence and charge transfer lines are presented. We show that LS coupling fails for the O2+ permitted transitions studied in this program and intermediate coupling may be a better assumption. Efficiencies of the Bowen fluorescence mechanism are derived for 15 objects, and a wide range of possible values is apparent. There is a remarkable linear positive correlation between the Bowen efficiency and the fractional abundance of oxygen in the ionization stage of O2+ and the fractional abundance of helium in the form of He+. Evidence that the Bowen efficiency is anticorrelated with the electron temperature, as first noted by Likkel and Aller, is established. The Bowen efficiency drops substantially when the nebular expansion velocity 2Vexp(O2+) > 55 km/sec. For lower expansion velocities there is no detectable correlation between these two quantities. There are no observable differences in Bowen efficiency among objects of different morphological type nor between objects excited by stars of different spectral types as suggested by Likkel and Aller.
In Liu and Danziger(1992b) we present Te derived from the Balmer discontinuities for 14 objects by long slit spectrophotometry. It is found that on the average the Te derived in this way are systematically lower than those derived the forbidden line ratios, indicating the presence of large temperature fluctuations(Peimbert 1967, 1971). The spectra obtained have been analyzed point-by-point along the slit for NGC 2392 and NGC 3242, for which t2 = 0.13 and 0.058, respectively, as measured on the summed spectra integrated along the slits.
The CMP challenges for advanced technology nodes are discussed. Global and local uniformity challenges and their cumulative effects are presented. Uniformity improvements for advanced node integration were achieved through slurry, pad and platen optimization, innovative integration schemes, the reduction of incoming variation and the reduction of cumulative effects. We discuss reduction of typical CMP defect types. Defects resulting from simple mechanisms (foreign material, polish residues) and those resulting from chemical and physical interactions (corrosion, chemical attack, scratches, physical migration) and strategies for control are studied. Defectivity reduction measures include new post-CMP clean chemicals, new slurries and pads and reduction of incoming defectivity. Finally we discuss an observed tradeoff between good defectivity and good uniformity.
Femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW) in transparent materials is a laser-based precise three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanofabrication method that has shown great potential for applications. The advantages of FsLDW originate in the nonlinear nature of absorption in the multiphoton absorption process. Over the past few years, transparent material micro/nanofabrication using FsLDW has seen several developments in materials and applications. Specifically, two-photon polymerization has been widely used as a precision direct-writing process for fabrication of polymeric 3D micro/nanostructures; internal/surface ablation of polymer 3D structures based on multiphoton absorption has been demonstrated and developed as a promising subtractive manufacturing technique; and femtosecond laser multiphoton modification in glass has been intensively studied for refractive-index change and generation of nanogratings and microvoids. This article describes the latest research on FsLDW in polymers and glasses with specific applications for large-dimension fabrication, microelectromechanical systems, microphotonics, and microfluidics.
These post hoc analyses evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine versus placebo in patients aged ≥55 years with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Study-level efficacy data from 12 short-term, fixed-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of vortioxetine 5–20 mg/day were assessed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Adverse events (AEs), vital signs, ECG values, liver enzymes, and body weight were pooled from the same studies. Patients had baseline Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores ranging from 22–30.
1508 patients (mean age=62.4 years; range, 55–88 years) were included. Mean differences from placebo in change from baseline to study end (6/8 weeks) in MADRS were –2.56 (5 mg, n=324, P=0.035), –2.87 (10 mg, n=222, P=0.007), –1.32 (15 mg, n=90, P=NS), and –4.65 (20 mg, n=165, P=0.012). Odds ratios for response versus placebo were 1.6 (5 mg, P=NS), 1.8 (10 mg, P=0.002), 1.2 (15 mg, P=NS), and 2.5 (20 mg, P<0.001), and for remission versus placebo were 1.5 (5 mg, P=NS), 1.5 (10 mg, P=NS), 1.4 (15 mg, P=NS), and 2.7 (20 mg, P=0.001). The proportion of patients with AEs for placebo and vortioxetine 5–20 mg was 61.5% and 62.3%, respectively, with no increase at increased doses. Vortioxetine demonstrated a placebo-level incidence of serious AEs (1.2%). AEs occurring in ≥5% of any treatment group were nausea, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, fatigue, vomiting, and anxiety. No clinically significant mean changes in vital signs, ECG values, liver enzymes, or body weight emerged during treatment.
Vortioxetine 5–20 mg/day is efficacious and well tolerated in MDD patients aged ≥55 years, a group that is often comorbid with other conditions and treated with other medications.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Gratian, the “Father of the Science of Canon Law,” had at least a passing familiarity with the scholastic theology of the early twelfth century. His Concordia discordantium canonum or Decretum displays a knowledge of many doctrines debated and discussed in the schools of northern France and also employs the dialectical method for reconciling contradictory authorities pioneered by the scholastics. How did Gratian become acquainted with these methods, doctrines, and ideas? What written sources, if any, introduced him to early scholastic theology?
In this article we respond to Thomas Pepinsky's commentary on our article “2013 Malaysian Elections: Ethnic Politics or Urban Wave?” (both in this issue). We confirm that both ethnicity and urbanization play important roles in determining the incumbent ruling party's percentage vote share in the thirteenth general election. In doing so, we address the various econometric issues raised by Pepinsky and clearly explain the advantages of our econometric methodology vis-à-vis the OLS analysis espoused by Pepinsky. Our main results indicate that Barisan National's (BN) vote share from Bumiputera voters, regardless of urbanization levels of the parliamentary constituency, is below the 50 percent threshold. This result is surprisingly compensated by the more than 50 percent support for BN when Chinese voters are a small minority of the electorate. We also argue that Pepinsky's statement that Malay voters are predominantly rural voters is inaccurate and provide evidence to the contrary.
In this article we examine the electoral impact of urbanization vis-à-vis ethnicity in Malaysia. We employ a robust econometric technique, the fractional response logit model, on data from the recently concluded thirteenth general election. The findings show that there are both an ethnic effect and an urban effect in determining the distribution of parliamentary seats among the political groups. Strong support for the opposition coalition, Pakatan Rakyat, was evident in urban constituencies, while the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, continued to enjoy success in rural constituencies. Although Barisan Nasional is still dependent on Bumiputera support, its success is also dependent on non-Bumiputera support from rural constituencies. However, with declining birthrates among the Chinese electorates, this support may not be forthcoming in future elections. We also provide insights for both coalitions to consider in developing strategies for the next election.
Scholarly work in the 1990s indicated that the values of civil servants in late colonial Hong Kong were evolving from those of classical bureaucrats to those of more political bureaucrats as the political and social environment changed. Based on in-depth interviews with 58 politicians and senior civil servants carried out between 2009 and 2012, we argue that Hong Kong civil service values have adapted owing in part to external shocks such as regime change and governance reform. Still, traditional civil service values such as fiscal prudence and balancing various community interests continue to be prominent. We illustrate the influence of civil service values in two policymaking cases: small-class teaching and minimum-wage legislation.