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Civic republicans have traditionally appealed to friendship as a means of preserving popular liberty, but Machiavelli is a notable exception to this rule. In fact, I argue, he views efforts to reconcile friendship and politics as (1) philosophically dubious, because grounded in false conceptions of person and society, and (2) practically harmful, because they perpetuate patterns of asymmetric dependence that are inconsistent with a free way of life. Machiavelli's neglected skepticism about the political potential of friendship deepens his critique of the Ciceronian concordia, reveals a diminished idea of the common good, and distances him from the civic republican tradition to which he is so often said to belong.
The response of the Antarctic ice sheet to climate change over the next 500
years is calculated using the output of a transient-coupled ocean-atmosphere
simulation assuming the atmospheric CO2 value increases up to
three times present levels. The main effects on the ice sheet on this
time-scale include increasing rates of accumulation, minimal surface
melting, and basal melting of ice shelves. A semi-Lagrangian transport
scheme for moisture was used to improve the model’s ability to represent
realistic rates of accumulation under present-day conditions, and thereby
increase confidence in the anomalies calculated under a warmer climate. The
response of the Antarctic ice sheet to the warming is increased accumulation
inland, offset by loss from basal melting from the floating ice, and
increased ice flow near the grounding line. The preliminary results of this
study show that the change to the ice-sheet balance for the
transient-coupled model forcing amounted to a minimal sea-level contribution
in the next century, but a net positive sea-level rise of 0.21 m by 500
years. This new result supercedes earlier results that showed the Antarctic
ice sheet made a net negative contribution to sea-level rise over the next
century. However, the amplitude of the sea-level rise is still dominated In
the much larger contributions expected from thermal expansion of the ocean
of 0.25 m for 100 years and 1.00 m for 500 years.
To gather information about psychiatric trainees' use of different information sources and academic materials, a questionnaire was distributed at the London Deanery Annual Psychiatry Trainee Conference and the training programmes of two teaching trusts.
Participants returned 202 out of a total of 300 completed questionnaires (67%). Websites were the most commonly accessed information source ahead of textbooks, abstracts and journals. Year of training correlated positively with journal use and negatively with textbook use. Year of training also correlated positively with frequency of reading three journals published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and with specific reasons for consulting journals, namely to improve clinical practice and inform trainees' own research.
Respondents reported consulting websites more frequently than more traditional information sources but journals are still a widely used source of information for trainee clinicians. It is important that trainees continue to be equipped with skills to identify and access high-quality information at the point of clinical uncertainty.
For nearly half a century democratic citizens have been preoccupied with the search for self-respect. Though classical liberalism places this question outside its purview and many commentators see in such a concern evidence of a “thin-skinned” political culture, John Rawls has recently provided serious arguments for the political relevance of self-respect. These arguments, we claim, are deeply indebted to the social and political theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose deep albeit underexamined influence on Rawls shows itself both in Rawls's conception of the social problem as well as in his solution to it. Rawls's belief that the provision of self-respect can solve the social problem is uniquely Rousseauan not only because of its emphasis on equality but also because it suggests political life can and must reconcile the conflicts between self and society at a fundamental level.
UBVRIJHKL photometry and MK spectral types have been obtained for stars illuminating nebulae in the CMa R1 association. Five stars, including the two classical Herbig-emission-stars Z CMa and HD 53367, have (K-L) excesses and/or emission line spectra indicating the presence of circumstellar matter. A number of stars also have (V-K) indices larger than expected on the basis of their spectral types and (B-V) indices, suggesting that a steeper than normal extinction law applies to these stars. The color-magnitude diagram for the association is unusual; many stars over the entire spectral range of the association (B0 to A1) lie more than 1 magnitude above the ZAMS in V. The middle and early type B stars with this property are all variable stars and most have rotationally broadened spectra and/or shell indicators. No stars later than B5 are on the main sequence, making CMa R1 probably the youngest stellar group yet identified. It suggests an age of ~3 × 105 years, compatible with the suggestion that a supernova explosion triggered star formation in this region. A comparison is made between the observations and theoretical models of pre-main sequence stars. A bolometric luminosity of Mbol < −4m.3 is derived for Z CMa implying a core mass of M > 10 M⊙, and a spectral type of ~B1, if the star is on the ZAMS.
Recent archaeological research in the Southern Jequetepeque Valley, Peru, has revealed that the coastal massif of Cerro Cañoncillo was venerated as a powerful huaca (sacred entity) from the Late Formative into the Late Horizon Period. The main objective of the article is to argue that some of the major religious structures of the Late Formative site of Jatanca (500–100 bc) and the Moche ceremonial center of Huaca Colorada (ad 650–850) were built as direct simulators of the distinctive cerro in question. However, a comparison of the larger archaeological landscape of these two neighbouring centres permits a reconstruction of the changing political context and religious significance of the Cerro Cañoncillo cult, allowing us to move beyond generic generalizations of Andean religious architecture as mimetic mountains. An important goal of the article is to demonstrate that attention to the vagaries of ecology and place are essential for the interpretation of historical differences in past religious ideologies. Ultimately, an exploration of the changing mimetic faculty of monumental architecture at Cerro Cañoncillo will permit a critical reappraisal of the storied concept of the ‘ceremonial centre’ that should be of comparative value to archaeologists working in other regions of the world.
Despite a recent resurgence of interest in friendship and a seemingly inexhaustible fascination with Rousseau, scholars have neglected Rousseau's conception of friendship. The work that does exist emphasizes friendship's ability to inculcate virtue, and moors Rousseau to the classical notion that friendship catalyzes ethical improvement. However, Rousseau lowers the aim of friendship by decoupling it from the process of moral learning and putting limits on the degree of intimacy between friends. The argument is made in four steps. First, Rousseau's theory of friendship differs from its relevant predecessors in both origin and end. Second, the effort to ground friendship in pity bounds emotional intimacy, since pity introduces elements of character difference as well as sameness. Third, Rousseauan friendship fails to catalyze virtue and is successful instead in providing consolation. Finally, the essay considers the function of friendship in a Rousseauan polity.
Case studies contribute more focused analyses which, in the context of human loss and damage, demonstrate the effectiveness of response strategies and prevention measures and identify lessons about success in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The case studies were chosen to complement and be consistent with the information in the preceding chapters, and to demonstrate aspects of the key messages in the Summary for Policymakers and the Hyogo Framework for Action Priorities.
The case studies were grouped to examine types of extreme events, vulnerable regions, and methodological approaches. For the extreme event examples, the first two case studies pertain to events of extreme temperature with moisture deficiencies in Europe and Australia and their impacts including on health. These are followed by case studies on drought in Syria and dzud, cold-dry conditions in Mongolia. Tropical cyclones in Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Mesoamerica, and then floods in Mozambique are discussed in the context of community actions. The last of the extreme events case studies is about disastrous epidemic disease, using the case of cholera in Zimbabwe, as the example.
The case studies chosen to reflect vulnerable regions demonstrate how a changing climate provides significant concerns for people, societies, and their infrastructure. These are: Mumbai as an example of a coastal megacity; the Republic of the Marshall Islands, as an example of small island developing states with special challenges for adaptation; and Canada's northern regions as an example of cold climate vulnerabilities focusing on infrastructures.
Historically, economic development has been strongly correlated with increasing energy use and growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Renewable energy (RE) can help decouple that correlation, contributing to sustainable development (SD). In addition, RE offers the opportunity to improve access to modern energy services for the poorest members of society, which is crucial for the achievement of any single of the eight Millennium Development Goals.
Theoretical concepts of SD can provide useful frameworks to assess the interactions between SD and RE. SD addresses concerns about relationships between human society and nature. Traditionally, SD has been framed in the three-pillar model—Economy, Ecology, and Society—allowing a schematic categorization of development goals, with the three pillars being interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Within another conceptual framework, SD can be oriented along a continuum between the two paradigms of weak sustainability and strong sustainability. The two paradigms differ in assumptions about the substitutability of natural and human-made capital. RE can contribute to the development goals of the three-pillar model and can be assessed in terms of both weak and strong SD, since RE utilization is defined as sustaining natural capital as long as its resource use does not reduce the potential for future harvest.
The amorphous dielectrics a-C:H and BN were deposited on III–V semiconductors.Optical band gaps as high as 3 eV were measured for a-C:H generated by C4 H10 plasmas; a comparison was made with bad gaps obtained from films prepared by CH4 glow discharges.The ion beam deposited BN films exhibited amorphous behavior with band gaps on the order of 5 eV.
Film compositions were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).The optical properties were characterized by ellipsometry, UV/VIS absorptiofr, and IR reflection and transmission.Etching rates of a-C:H subjected to O2 discharges were determined.
Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on silicon and quartz substrates by a 30 kHz plasma discharge technique using methane. Rapid thermal processing of the films was accomplished in nitrogen gas using tungsten halogen light. The rapid thermal processing was done at several fixed temperatures (up to 600°C), as a function of time (up to 1800 sec). The films were characterized by optical absorption and by ellipsometry in the near UV and the visible. The bandgap, estimated from extrapolation of the linear part of a Tauc plot, decreases both with the annealing temperature and the annealing time, with the temperature dependence being the dominating factor. The density of states parameter increases up to 25 percent and the refractive index changes up to 20 percent with temperature increase. Possible explanations of the mechanisms involved in these processes are discussed.
A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphide. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen Impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on the III–V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.