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Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
As part of a multi-wavelength study, we report on a 50 ks Chandra/ACIS observation of the Guitar Nebula, a bow shock nebula associated with the radio pulsar B2224+65. We see a “hot spot” at the tip of the bow shock. We also notice a “jet” of X-ray emission at position angle (PA) −69°. However, the proper motion of the pulsar and the axis of optical emission is at PA 52°.1. We discuss the resulting interpretations of the relativistic pulsar wind and the surrounding ISM.
Twenty-nine women and fifteen men from an area of low Se intake (South Island of New Zealand) consumed 100 μg stable 74Se, as selenate given in water after an overnight fast, and blood was collected for 3 weeks. They were then divided into five groups and supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg Se/d (as selenomethionine) for 5 months. After 5 months, they received a second dose of 74Se identical to the first. Supplementation significantly altered retention of 74Se in the plasma, but not in the erythrocytes or platelets. Subjects receiving the placebo retained the greatest amount, and subjects receiving 30 μg supplemental Se/d retained the least 74Se. Supplementation resulted in relatively more isotope being retained in a medium molecular mass protein considered to be albumin, and relatively less in another fraction considered to be selenoprotein P. The lack of many observed changes in retention of stable Se, and the shift in retention among the plasma proteins, suggests that supplemental Se was not being used to replete critical pools of Se, probably because of adaptation to low Se intake.
Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., micro-electronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist.
This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples will be given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory will be presented along with some recommendations for future progress and needs.
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