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Phytase (PHY) improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and bone structure in pigs; however, little is known about its effects on intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. In the present study, a 44 d experiment was carried out using forty-eight pigs (11·76 (sem 0·75) kg) assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups to measure growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), coefficient of apparent total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD) and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. Dietary treatments during the experimental period were as follows: (1) a high-P (HP) diet containing 3·4 g/kg available P and 7·0 g/kg Ca; (2) a low-P (LP) diet containing 1·9 g/kg available P and 5·9 g/kg Ca; (3) a PHY diet containing LP diet ingredients+1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of PHY. The PHY diet increased the average daily gain (P< 0·05) and final body weight (P< 0·01) and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P< 0·05) compared with the LP diet. Pigs fed the PHY diet had a higher CAID of gross energy compared with those fed the HP and LP diets (P< 0·001). Pigs fed the PHY diet had increased CAID of P (P< 0·01) and CATTD of Ca and P (P< 0·001) compared with those fed the LP diet. The PHY diet increased the gene expression of the peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1/SLC15A1) (P< 0·05) in the ileum compared with the LP diet. The LP diet decreased the gene expression of the sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1/SLC5A1) and GLUT2/SLC2A2 (P< 0·05) and increased the expression of membrane Ca channel (TRPV6) and calbindin compared with the HP diet (P< 0·001). In conclusion, feeding a diet supplemented with PHY improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility as well as increases the gene expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1.
Recent studies have suggested that chito-oligosaccharides can have anti-adipogenic properties. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the anti-adipogenic potential of four different chito-oligosaccharides (molecular weight (MW) < 1000, 1000–3000, 3000–5000 and 5000–10 000 Da) and to identify molecular mechanisms underlying the chito-oligosaccharide-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis. Mouse 3T3-L1 cells were allowed to differentiate in the presence of chito-oligosaccharide. At day 8 post-induction of differentiation, lipid accumulation, free glycerol release and the quantitative expression of adipogenic marker genes were evaluated. Chito-oligosaccharides had concentration- and MW-dependent inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation (P < 0·001 and < 0·05, respectively), as well as a concentration-dependent effect (P < 0·001) on free glycerol release and the expression of adipogenic marker genes. The 5000–10 000 Da chito-oligosaccharide was selected for subsequent molecular studies. A panel of forty-four lipid metabolic pathway-specific genes was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Chito-oligosaccharide-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis was associated with the up-regulation of the IL-6 gene at all concentrations of chito-oligosaccharide examined and the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene at higher concentrations of chito-oligosaccharide. The effect of chito-oligosaccharide on gene expression was validated by measuring IL-6 protein concentrations in the media. Finally, an IL-6 promoter assay was developed to characterise the effect of chito-oligosaccharide on the transcriptional activity of the IL-6 promoter, which was increased in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0·001). We conclude that IL-6 is a candidate signalling molecule in the chito-oligosaccharide-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.
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