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The state's coercive engagement with Black youth expressive culture, and rap music in particular, is a topic of mounting public and scholarly concern. Rap lyrics and videos made by defendants and codefendants are regularly used as evidence in court cases in ways that incite bias against young people in the dock. At the same time, the performance and circulation of rap music are increasingly monitored and constrained by the police and other bodies. Thus, as this special issue explores, the prosecuting and policing of rap music serves as a double-punch against Black youth: the state both showcases rap music as criminal evidence in the courtroom to lock down prosecutions and, at the same time, surveils rappers and suppresses the music's creation and dissemination and, in so doing, the income streams of those who make it.
A multi-disciplinary expert group met to discuss vitamin D deficiency in the UK and strategies for improving population intakes and status. Changes to UK Government advice since the 1st Rank Forum on Vitamin D (2009) were discussed, including rationale for setting a reference nutrient intake (10 µg/d; 400 IU/d) for adults and children (4+ years). Current UK data show inadequate intakes among all age groups and high prevalence of low vitamin D status among specific groups (e.g. pregnant women and adolescent males/females). Evidence of widespread deficiency within some minority ethnic groups, resulting in nutritional rickets (particularly among Black and South Asian infants), raised particular concern. Latest data indicate that UK population vitamin D intakes and status reamain relatively unchanged since Government recommendations changed in 2016. Vitamin D food fortification was discussed as a potential strategy to increase population intakes. Data from dose–response and dietary modelling studies indicate dairy products, bread, hens’ eggs and some meats as potential fortification vehicles. Vitamin D3 appears more effective than vitamin D2 for raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, which has implications for choice of fortificant. Other considerations for successful fortification strategies include: (i) need for ‘real-world’ cost information for use in modelling work; (ii) supportive food legislation; (iii) improved consumer and health professional understanding of vitamin D’s importance; (iv) clinical consequences of inadequate vitamin D status and (v) consistent communication of Government advice across health/social care professions, and via the food industry. These areas urgently require further research to enable universal improvement in vitamin D intakes and status in the UK population.
An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
The emergence of punk in Britain (1976–1978) is recalled and documented as a moment of rebellion, one in which youth culture was seen to challenge accepted values and forms of behaviour, and to set in motion a new kind of cultural politics. In this article we do two things. First, we ask how far punk's challenge extended. Did it penetrate those political, cultural and social elites against which it set itself? And second, we reflect on the problem of recovering the history and politics of moments such as punk, and on the value of archives to such exercises in recuperation. In pursuit of both tasks, we make use of a wide range of historical sources, relying on these rather than on retrospective oral or autobiographical accounts. We set our findings against the narratives offered by both subcultural and mainstream histories of punk. We show how punk's impact on elites can be detected in the rhetoric of the popular media, and in aspects of the practice of local government and the police. Its impact on other elites (e.g. central government or the monarchy) is much harder to discern. These insights are important both for enriching our understanding of the political significance of punk and for how we approach the historical record left by popular music.
Field studies were conducted from 1985 to 1989 on a Sharkey clay to examine injury to a semi-dwarf rice cultivar, ‘Lemont’, from triclopyr or triclopyr plus propanil. Triclopyr applied in the booting stage reduced yield two of three years, with the observed yield reduction possibly caused by epinasty of the rice flag leaf. Triclopyr application to three- to four-leaf rice caused hyponasty. Triclopyr did not reduce plant height, seed weight, germination, or total milling yield. Triclopyr plus propanil caused more leaf burn that triclopyr alone, but yields were not reduced compared with the untreated control. This research indicated that triclopyr and triclopyr plus propanil can be used in rice production with the semi-dwarf cultivar, Lemont, with the potential to minimize drift to non-target crops due to the greater flexibility in application timing compared with 2,4-D application.
A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine effects of posttreatment irrigation timing on pendimethalin efficacy and dissipation in turfgrass. Factors investigated included herbicide rate, formulation, and the interval between pendimethalin application and the initial posttreatment irrigation. Plots received an initial posttreatment irrigation of 1.25 cm 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after treatment. Pendimethalin efficacy on smooth crabgrass was evaluated, and turfgrass foliage and the upper 2.5-cm layer of soil were periodically assayed for pendimethalin residues. Pendimethalin 1.71% granular provided better weed control than pendimethalin 60% wettable powder at all rates, irrigation events, and years. Efficacy of granular pendimethalin was not affected by a delay in posttreatment irrigation, whereas efficacy of pendimethalin in the wettable powder formulation was reduced when irrigation was applied later than the day of treatment. Chromatographic analyses indicated that an average of 54% of the applied pendimethalin (wettable powder formulation) was retained on turfgrass foliage immediately after treatment, compared to 9% for the granular formulation. Soil residue analyses confirmed that a greater proportion of applied pendimethalin reached the soil surface immediately after treatment in the granular formulation than in the wettable power formulation.
To determine the competitiveness of common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr.) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. 'Stoneville 213′), experiments were conducted on a Lucedale fine sandy loam from 1978 through 1980. Common cocklebur dry weight increased with increasing density up to 16 plants/15 m of row. No further increase in dry matter occurred beyond this density. Regression analysis showed that common cocklebur produced an average of 342 kg/ha of dry weight for each plant per 15-m row. Seed-cotton yields decreased as weed density increased up to 16 common cocklebur plants/15 m of row. Regression equations revealed yield losses ranging from 72 to 115 kg/ha for hand-harvested seed cotton and 57 to 90 kg/ha for machine-harvested seed cotton for each common cocklebur plant/15 m of row. Cotton stem diameter and height were reduced by weed competition in the same manner as seed cotton yields, but reductions were not as pronounced, indicating that these parameters were not good indicators of common cocklebur competition.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘Stoneville 213’) was grown on Lucedale fine sandy loam with sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia L. ♯ CASOB) and a complex of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. ♯ AMARE) and smooth pigweed (A. hybridus L. ♯ AMACH) in all possible combinations of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeds of each species per 7.5 m of row. Seed cotton yields decreased as a quadratic function of increasing weed density. One pigweed and one sicklepod plant per 7.5 m of row reduced yields by 9 and 9.7% in 1979 and 1980, respectively. At low levels of infestation (≤4 weeds/7.5 m of row), the competitive effect of pigweed and sicklepod was additive; however, at the high densities, the competitive effect was not additive. Mechanical harvesting efficiency and cotton maturity were not decreased by any weed density. Sicklepod was more competitive than pigweed in both years.
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate seedling rice tolerance to haloxyfop and to determine soil moisture effects on root, shoot, and root plus shoot uptake. Visible injury to rice at 4 wk after treatment increased with each increase of haloxyfop rate from 40 to 160 g ai/ha, regardless of growth stage. Less injury was observed at equivalent rates in four-leaf than in younger rice. Similarly, equivalent haloxyfop rates reduced shoot fresh weight of one- to three-leaf rice more than shoot fresh weight of four-leaf rice. There was no interation between soil moisture levels (19 and 24%) and haloxyfop activity. Fresh weights were less when haloxyfop at 40 or 80 g/ha was absorbed by both roots and shoots than when absorption was by either roots or shoots alone. However, at 80 g/ha fresh weight was similar whether haloxyfop was absorbed by roots or shoots alone. Root uptake, in the presence of 160 g/ha haloxyfop, did not contribute to reduced fresh weight with root plus shoot treatments because of the initial foliar activity incurred.
In this paper, we consider the Leveson inquiry's use of a narrative device – the policy cycle – to justify the need for a break with the past. We challenge that narrative, which runs through much of the literature, and posit a more nuanced and complex account of the politics and history of press inquiries, drawing upon the political science literature. We then reflect upon the implications of our findings for the future of press regulation.
Tucked away on the b-side of the Sex Pistols’ third single, ‘Pretty Vacant’ (1977), is a cover version of The Stooges’ ‘No Fun’. The song had long been a staple of the Pistols’ live set; on record, however, Johnny Rotten chose to open the track with a diatribe against those attempting to imbue the punk culture he helped instigate with broader socio-economic, cultural or political implications. ‘Here we go now’, he snarled, ‘a sociology lecture, with a bit of psychology, a bit of neurology, a bit of fuckology’.