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The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
The previous chapter examined the range of reward plans associated with the recognition and reward of individual behaviour and/or results. This chapter focuses on plans where reward outcomes are contingent on measures of collective results; that is, on collective incentive plans. Because such plans are generally geared to measures of group results over a relatively brief time frame – typically monthly, quarterly or annually – they are also known as collective or group short-term incentive plans, or ‘STIs’.
We begin our exploration of collective STIs by outlining the general rationale for such plans and by overviewing the four main plan types: profit-sharing, gainsharing, goal-sharing and team incentives. Subsequent sections explore each of these four plan types in more detail, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Consistent with the approach taken in earlier chapters, a final section considers the strategic priorities to which each plan type would be most and least appropriate.
Chapter 1 introduced the basic ‘tools’ of performance and reward management, including key aspects of purpose and practice. In this chapter we introduce two overarching concepts of alignment that recur throughout this book: ‘strategic alignment’ and ‘psychological engagement’. The design, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems requires simultaneous, systematic and constant attention to both of these dimensions of alignment.
‘Strategic alignment’ refers to the plans, processes and actions involved in establishing and maintaining an alignment between an organisation’s overarching purpose or intent and how it manages employee performance and reward, as well as all other aspects of people management.
A remuneration system typically comprises three main elements: base pay, benefits and performance-related pay. In designing any remuneration system careful attention should be paid to three key considerations: first, the relative role that each of these three components will play in total remuneration; second, the practices that will be drawn on to configure each component; and third, the target level of total remuneration for each position. Any discussion of remuneration practice must consider what, for most employees, is the primary component of their total remuneration, namely base pay.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.
The concept of ‘total reward management’, which was canvassed in chapter 1, acknowledges the growing importance of benefit plans in strategic reward practice, particularly in attracting and retaining high capability employees with specific demographic characteristics, such as women professionals, experienced older workers of both sexes, and younger workers, such as ‘Millennials’ (born between 1985 and 2000) and ‘Generation Z’ (those born since 2000).
Whereas benefits were once the least glamorous of all aspects of reward management – and were literally referred to as ‘fringe’ reward practices – many organisations now consider them to be an important means of gaining a competitive advantage in labour markets where key ‘talent’ is in short supply. As the workforce becomes more diverse and as the level of employee education and reward expectation rises, financial and non-financial benefits are assuming an increasingly critical role in the reward management system’s ability to attract, retain and motivate high-potential and high-performing employees.
Having laid out all the pieces of the performance and reward puzzle, it is time for us to consider how to go about assembling these elements into a coherent whole. In previous chapters, we have offered you some insights as to how the practices referred to in the chapter might support certain strategic priorities rather than others. In this chapter, we detail common approaches to assembling the various concepts, practices and strategies explored previously. In developing an integrated, strategically aligned and psychologically engaging performance and reward system, we need to remember that nothing is ever ‘finished’ and that change is the great constant. Accordingly, we examine the requirements for performance and reward system review, the steps involved in system change and development and challenges that may be encountered along the way. Although our approach here is primarily prescriptive in nature, we also draw on a range of insights from the research literature that has been referred to at various points throughout the book.
In this final chapter, we explore emerging trends – the new horizons – in business, technology and society with a particular focus on how these developments are influencing ideas, practice, employee experience and academic research in the field of performance and reward management. We begin with emerging trends and practices that have already begun to impact the design of performance and reward management systems and academic research in the field. We focus on three interconnected global trends that have already started to change performance and reward management practice; an impact that is very likely to increase in the years ahead. The first of these trends is the technological revolution associated with ‘Industry 4.0’; the second is the economic disruption and employment uncertainty associated with what has come to be called the ‘gig economy’; and the third is the social transformation flowing from generational change around the world.
The third edition of Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Systems, Practices and Prospects has been thoroughly revised and updated by a new four-member author team. The text introduces a new conceptual framework based on systems thinking and a dual model of strategic alignment and psychological engagement. Coverage of chapter topics provides a balance between research evidence and practice and, in this new edition, is enhanced with a more applied and technical approach. The text also includes chapters dedicated to conceptual framing, base pay and individual recognition and reward; 'reality check' breakout boxes with practical examples and current problems on each of strategic alignment, employee engagement, organisation justice and workforce diversity; and a new chapter exploring new horizons in performance and reward practice and research with a focus on the mega-trends of technological transformation under 'Industry 4.0', new economic forms and relationships arising from the 'gig' economy, and generational change.
Advance care planning (ACP) increases quality of life and satisfaction with care for those with cancer and their families, yet these important conversations often do not occur. Barriers include patients’ and families’ emotional responses to cancer, such as anxiety and sadness, which can lead to avoidance of discussing illness-related topics such as ACP. Interventions that address psychological barriers to ACP are needed. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a mindfulness intervention designed to cultivate patient and caregiver emotional and relational capacity to respond to the challenges of cancer with greater ease, potentially decreasing psychological barriers to ACP and enhancing ACP engagement.
The Mindfully Optimizing Delivery of End-of-Life (MODEL) Care intervention provided 12 hours of experiential training to two cohorts of six to seven adults with advanced-stage cancer and their family caregivers (n = 13 dyads). Training included mindfulness practices, mindful communication skills development, and information about ACP. Patient and caregiver experiences of the MODEL Care program were assessed using semistructured interviews administered immediately postintervention and open-ended survey questions delivered immediately and at 4 weeks postintervention. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methods.
Four salient themes were identified. Patients and caregivers reported the intervention (1) enhanced adaptive coping practices, (2) lowered emotional reactivity, (3) strengthened relationships, and (4) improved communication, including communication about their disease.
Significance of results
The MODEL Care intervention enhanced patient and caregiver capacity to respond to the emotional challenges that often accompany advanced cancer and decreased patient and caregiver psychological barriers to ACP.
We made 37 collections and analysed the polytene chromosomes of salivary glands of 726 larvae of the Simulium arcticum Malloch (Diptera: Simuliidae) complex from 10 locations in an unstudied region from central Idaho and southeastern Washington, United States of America. We compared our results to previous population cytotaxonomic research on larvae of this complex from western Montana, northern Idaho, and eastern Washington, United States of America. We identified four sibling species, S. brevicercum Knowlton and Rowe, S. saxosum Adler, S. arcticum sensu stricto, S. apricarium Adler, Currie, and Wood; and three cytotypes, S. arcticum IIL-9, IIL-17, and IIL-79, previously described by us. We discovered a new cytotype, S. arcticum IIL-80, at three locations in the western region of our sample area. We also found combinational (ancestral) types between S. saxosum and S. arcticum sensu stricto and between S. saxosum and S. arcticum IIL-79, suggesting that ancestral populations of the complex still exist. Geographic structuring of these sibling species and cytotypes are documented given that S. saxosum occurred in western regions, S. arcticum IIL-79 in northeastern regions, and S. apricarium in southeastern regions of our study area.
Performance is a subjective, constructed and sometimes contested phenomenon, depending on whether it is approached from a prescriptive, descriptive or critical frame of reference. Thus, defining and measuring employee performance is not a power-neutral activity – this process is embedded in our assumptions regarding the employment relationship. How performance is defined and measured, by whom and for what purposes need to be critically examined when considering the shaping of employee behaviour. Performance measurement is typically approached from the employer perspective; far less frequently does the literature examine how employees make sense of managerially imposed performance measures (McLean 2008). Furthermore, there are both intended and unintended consequences of the measures we use. For example, as noted in chapter 4, ‘what gets measured gets done’ is a common observation. Thus, measuring routine behaviours will encourage routine outcomes. If we desire innovative employee behaviours we would need a different set of performance measures. The old saying that ‘what gets measured is what is easy to measure, not necessarily what is important’ suggests critical thinking regarding the measures we use. Crucial organisational citizenship behaviours, for example, are often hard to measure. Their absence in performance indicators may lead to unintended consequences such as lack of teamwork, or neglect of informal knowledge sharing within the organisation.
In Chapter 4, we focused on managing for results, especially through measuring performance outputs. In this chapter, we examine the assessment processes and techniques associated with the management of work behaviour, the strengths, weaknesses and criticisms of these assessment methods, and the situations in which each may be the most and least appropriate. In assessing the measurement of work behaviours, we consider sources of behavioural information, behavioural assessment methods and some common flaws in behavioural rating instruments. We also examine the competencies (inputs) of individuals that are related positively and causally to desired work behaviour and results. We examine the ‘competencies’ construct, discuss competency assessment and evaluate these assessment methods. While measuring individual performance is considered an orthodox human resource management practice, an important consideration to keep in mind throughout this chapter is: exactly how do measuring work behaviours and individual competencies shape subsequent behaviour?