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To determine whether probiotic prophylaxes reduce the odds of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children.
Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), adjusting for risk factors.
We searched 6 databases and 11 grey literature sources from inception to April 2016. We identified 32 RCTs (n=8,713); among them, 18 RCTs provided IPD (n=6,851 participants) comparing probiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no treatment (standard care). One reviewer prepared the IPD, and 2 reviewers extracted data, rated study quality, and graded evidence quality.
Probiotics reduced CDI odds in the unadjusted model (n=6,645; odds ratio [OR] 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25–0.55) and the adjusted model (n=5,074; OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23–0.55). Using 2 or more antibiotics increased the odds of CDI (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.11–4.37), whereas age, sex, hospitalization status, and high-risk antibiotic exposure did not. Adjusted subgroup analyses suggested that, compared to no probiotics, multispecies probiotics were more beneficial than single-species probiotics, as was using probiotics in clinical settings where the CDI risk is ≥5%. Of 18 studies, 14 reported adverse events. In 11 of these 14 studies, the adverse events were retained in the adjusted model. Odds for serious adverse events were similar for both groups in the unadjusted analyses (n=4,990; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89–1.26) and adjusted analyses (n=4,718; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89–1.28). Missing outcome data for CDI ranged from 0% to 25.8%. Our analyses were robust to a sensitivity analysis for missingness.
Moderate quality (ie, certainty) evidence suggests that probiotic prophylaxis may be a useful and safe CDI prevention strategy, particularly among participants taking 2 or more antibiotics and in hospital settings where the risk of CDI is ≥5%.
Thirty-five patients were randomized to extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and 25 to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Stone disappearance occurred in only 12 of 32 ESWL patients [38% (95% Cl: 21–56%)] during a 15-month follow-up. Greater incremental gains in quality of life after 6 months were observed among LC patients (p <.01). Total duration of disability was 6.8 ± 8.5 days for ESWL, and 22.7 ± 16.6 days for LC (p <.01). Nine (28%) patients crossed over electively to the LC group, but only 44% of these underwent LC within the next 3 years. ESWL cost Can $58.9/ day of disability saved. ESWL is limited by its selective applicability and modest stone disappearance rate. Its cost-effectiveness is largely dependent on patient acceptance of recurrent episodes of biliary colic due to the persistence of stone fragments.
The controversy surrounding the use of advanced life support (ALS) for the prehospital management of trauma pivots on the fact that these procedures could cause significant and life-threatening delays to definitive in-hospital care.
In Montreal, Québec, on-site ALS to injured patients is provided by physicians only. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters associated with the duration of scene time for patients with moderate to severe injuries treated by physicians at the scene.
The use of on-site ALS by physicians is associated with a significant increase in scene time.
A total of 576 patients with moderate to severe injuries are included in the analysis. This group was part of a larger cohort used in the prospective evaluation of trauma care in Montreal. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression techniques were use to analyze the data.
Use of ALS in general was associated with a statistically significant increase in the mean scene time of 6.5 min. (p = .0001). Significant increases in mean scene time were observed for initiation of an intravenous route (mean = 6.6 min., p = .0001), medication administration (mean =5.7 min., p = .0001), and pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) application (mean = 9.3 min., p = .03). Similar differences were observed for total prehospital time. A significant increase in the relative odds for having long scene times (>20 min.) also was associated with the use of ALS. This level of scene time was associated with a significant increase in the odds of dying (OR = 2.6, p = .009).
This study shows that physician-provided, on-site ALS causes significant increase in scene time and total prehospital time. These delays are associated with an increase in the risk for death in patients with an severe injuries.
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