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It has been an underlying assumption in many studies that near-surface layers imaged by ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be interpreted as depositional markers or isochrones. It has been shown that GPR layers can be approximately reproduced from the measured electrical properties of ice, but these material layers are generally narrower and more closely spaced than can be resolved by typical GPR systems operating in the range 50−400 MHz. Thus GPR layers should be interpreted as interference patterns produced from closely spaced and potentially discontinuous material layers, and should not be assumed to be interpretable as precise markers of isochrones. We present 100 MHz GPR data from Lyddan Ice Rise, Antarctica, in which near-surface (<50 m deep) layers are clearly imaged. The growth of the undulations in these layers with depth is approximately linear, implying that, rather than resulting from a pattern of vertical strain rate, they do correspond to some pattern of snowfall variation. Furthermore, comparison of the GPR layers with snow-stake measurements suggests that around 80% of the rms variability in mean annual accumulation is present in the GPR layers. The observations suggest that, at least in this case, the GPR layers do approximate isochrones, and that patterns of snow accumulation over Lyddan Ice Rise are dominated by extremely persistent spatial variations with only a small residual spatial variability. If this condition is shown to be widely applicable it may reduce the period required for measurements of surface elevation change to be taken as significant indications of mass imbalance.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Fontan survivors have depressed cardiac index that worsens over time. Serum biomarker measurement is minimally invasive, rapid, widely available, and may be useful for serial monitoring. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers that correlate with lower cardiac index in Fontan patients.
Methods and results
This study was a multi-centre case series assessing the correlations between biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance-derived cardiac index in Fontan patients ⩾6 years of age with biochemical and haematopoietic biomarkers obtained ±12 months from cardiac magnetic resonance. Medical history and biomarker values were obtained by chart review. Spearman’s Rank correlation assessed associations between biomarker z-scores and cardiac index. Biomarkers with significant correlations had receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve estimated. In total, 97 cardiac magnetic resonances in 87 patients met inclusion criteria: median age at cardiac magnetic resonance was 15 (6–33) years. Significant correlations were found between cardiac index and total alkaline phosphatase (−0.26, p=0.04), estimated creatinine clearance (0.26, p=0.02), and mean corpuscular volume (−0.32, p<0.01). Area under the curve for the three individual biomarkers was 0.63–0.69. Area under the curve for the three-biomarker panel was 0.75. Comparison of cardiac index above and below the receiver operating characteristic curve-identified cut-off points revealed significant differences for each biomarker (p<0.01) and for the composite panel [median cardiac index for higher-risk group=2.17 L/minute/m2 versus lower-risk group=2.96 L/minute/m2, (p<0.01)].
Higher total alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular volume as well as lower estimated creatinine clearance identify Fontan patients with lower cardiac index. Using biomarkers to monitor haemodynamics and organ-specific effects warrants prospective investigation.
Large numbers of evacuees arrived in Dallas, Texas, from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita just 3 weeks apart in 2005 and from Hurricanes Gustav and Ike just 3 weeks apart again in 2008. The Dallas community needed to locate, organize, and manage the response to provide shelter and health care with locally available resources. With each successive hurricane, disaster response leaders applied many lessons learned from prior operations to become more efficient and effective in the provision of services. Mental health services proved to be an essential component. From these experiences, a set of operating guidelines for large evacuee shelter mental health services in Dallas was developed, with involvement of key stakeholders. A generic description of the processes and procedures used in Dallas that highlights the important concepts, key considerations, and organizational steps was then created for potential adaptation by other communities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:423–429)
Classical plasticity theories generally assume that the stress at a point is a function of strain at that point only. However, when gradients in strain become significant, this localization assumption is no longer valid. These conventional models fail to display a ‘size effect’. This effect is seen experimentally when the scale of the phenomenon of interest is on the order of several microns. Under these conditions, strain gradients are of a significant magnitude as compared to the overall strain and must be considered for models to accurately capture observed phenomena.
The mechanics community has been actively involved in the development of strain gradient theories for many years. Recently, interest in this area has been rekindled and several new approaches have appeared in the literature. Two different approaches are currently being evaluated. One approach considers strain gradients as internal variables that do not introduce work conjugate higher order stresses. Another approach considers the strain gradients as internal degrees of freedom that requires work conjugate higher order stresses. Experiments are being performed to determine which approach models material behavior accurately with the least amount of complexity. A key difference between the two models considered here is the nature of the assumed boundary conditions at material interfaces. Therefore, we are investigating the deformation behavior of aluminum/sapphire interfaces loaded under simple shear. Samples are fabricated using ultra-high vacuum diffusion bonding. To determine the lattice rotations near the boundary, we are examining the samples with both electron backscatter diffraction methods (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope and with a variety of diffraction techniques in the transmission electron microscope. The experimentally found boundary conditions shall be subsequently used to determine whether the simpler internal variable model is adequately descriptive or if the greater complexity associated with the internal degree of freedom approach is warranted.
We report angle-resolved photoemission data from single crystals of C60 cleaved in UHV. Unlike the other forms of pure carbon, the valence band spectrum of C60 consists of many sharp features that can be essentially accounted for by the quantum chemical calculations describing individual molecules. This suggests that the electronic structure of solid C60 is mainly determined by the bonding interactions within the individual molecules. We also observe remarkable intensity modulations of the photoemission features as a function of photon energy, suggesting strong final state effects. Finally, we address the issue of the band width of the HOMO state of C60. We assert that the width of the photoemission peak of C60 does not reflectthe intrinsic band width.
Small-angle neutron scattering from grain boundary interfaces has been investigated in polycrystal palladium with and without deuterium dissolved in the solution phase. Polycrystalline samples were prepared using two different procedures: (1) single crystal material was recrystallized at 517°C after 78% cold working, and (2) an extruded polycrystal rod was investigated as received, or recrystallized at 600°C and 680°C. The expected 1/Q2 scattering profile (where Q is the neutron wavevector transfer) from grain boundaries has been observed, and the absolute cross sections permit a determination of the grain boundary surface concentration of missing palladium atoms and of trapped deuterium. The vacancy and trapped deuterium surface concentration determined in these measurements was 0.2-0.3 vacancies/Å2 and 0.4-0.6 deuterons/Å2, respectively. The measurements were extended to the low Q region (Q ≥0.006 1/Å) where the scattering response was dominated by Porod 1/Q4 behavior typical of internal voids. This behavior was especially strong for the samples fabricated from the extruded polycrystal, but was also present in the as-received single crystal. The degradation of the single crystal Porod response after compressional cold working is in reasonable agreement with the calculated effect of flattening a spherical void.
Exposure to numerous acids and bases and UV/O3 oxidation were used to determine the best ex situ cleaning techniques for the (0001) surfaces of AIN and GaN. HF and HCI were the most effective in removing the oxide from AIN and GaN, respectively. However, AES and XPS revealed the surfaces to be terminated with F and CI which inhibited re-oxidation prior to loading into vacuum. TPD showed mat temperatures of 650 and 850°C are necessary to thermally desorb the CI and F, respectively. UV/O3 oxidation in air was not effective in removing hydrocarbons from either surface but was effective for oxide growth. In situ remote hydrogen plasma exposure at 450°C removed halogens and hydrocarbons remaining after ex situ cleaning of both AIN and GaN surfaces; however, oxide free surfaces could not be achieved. Thermal desorption of hydrocarbons from GaN in UHV was achieved at 650°C. Complete thermal desorption of the surface oxide in UHV was only achieved at temperatures > 800°C where some GaN decomposition occurred. Annealing GaN in NH3 at 700°C reduced the surface oxide without loss of surface stoichiometry.
Two layer metal gate stacks allow the effective work function to be tuned by varying the thickness of the first metal layer. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors were fabricated by using two metals of very different work functions on thermal oxide gate dielectric where the bottom layer thickness is varied over a range from 0 to 50nm. Electrical and thermal stability measurements were performed on the Al on TaN metal gate stack. The effective workfunction is seen to shift from the value of one metal to the other rapidly as the thickness of the first metal layer is varied from 0 to approximately 10nm. The flat band voltage (Vfb) transition matches the workfunction difference of the two metals in the stack. The advantage of this approach when applied to metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) is that it allows the effective workfunction of the metal stack, and the threshold voltage (Vth) of the device to be fine tuned. It also allows for eventual dual gate complementary MOS (CMOS) device fabrication where two different work function metal stacks are necessary, without processing directly on the gate dielectric. A model is proposed to elucidate the workfunction tuning mechanism.
GeH4 is thermally cracked over a hot filament depositing 0.7–15 ML Ge onto 2–7 nm SiO2/Si(100) at substrate temperatures of 300–970 K. Ge, GeHx, GeO, and GeO2 desorption is monitored through temperature programmed desorption in the temperature range 300–1000 K. Ge bonding changes are analyzed during annealing from 300–1000 K with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Low temperature desorption features are attributed to GeO and GeH4. No GeO2 desorption is observed, but GeO2 decomposition to Ge through high temperature pathways is seen above 700 K. Germanium oxidization results from Ge etching of the oxide substrate, which is demonstrated through XPS. Ge nanoparticle formation on SiO2 is demonstrated using the agglomeration process. With these results, explanations for the difficulties of conventional chemical vapor deposition to produce Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 surfaces are proposed.