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The association between dietary patterns (DP) and prevalence of hearing loss in men enrolled in the Caerphilly Prospective Study was investigated. During 1979–1983, the study recruited 2512 men aged 45–59 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and a 7-d weighed food intake (WI) in a 30 % subsample. Five years later, pure-tone unaided audiometric threshold was assessed at 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified three DP and multiple logistic and ordinal logistic regression models examined the association with hearing loss (defined as pure-tone average of frequencies 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz >25 dB). Traditional, healthy and high-sugar/low-alcohol DP were found with both FFQ and WI data. With the FFQ data, fully adjusted models demonstrated significant inverse association between the healthy DP and hearing loss both as a dichotomous variable (OR=0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·90; P<0·001) and as an ordinal variable (OR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·94; P<0·001). With the WI data, fully adjusted models showed a significant and inverse association between the healthy DP and hearing loss (OR=0·85; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·99; P<0·03), and a significant association between the traditional DP (per fifth increase) and hearing loss both as a dichotomous variable (OR=1·18; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·35; P=0·02) and as an ordinal variable (OR=1·17; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·33; P=0·02). A healthy DP was significantly and inversely associated with hearing loss in older men. The role of diet in age-related hearing loss warrants further investigation.
The K-type and H-type transitions of a natural convection boundary layer of a fluid of Prandtl number 7 adjacent to an isothermally heated vertical surface are investigated by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). These two types of transitions refer to different flow features at the transitional stage from laminar to turbulence caused by two different types of perturbations. To excite the K-type transition, superimposed Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) and oblique waves of the same frequency are introduced into the boundary layer. It is found that a three-layer longitudinal vortex structure is present in the boundary layer undergoing the K-type transition. The typical aligned
-shaped vortices characterizing the K-type transition are observed for the first time in pure natural convection boundary layers. For exciting the H-type transition, superimposed TS and oblique waves of different frequencies, with the frequency of the oblique waves being half of the frequency of the TS waves, are introduced into the boundary layer. Unlike the three-layer longitudinal vortex structure observed in the K-type transition, a double-layer longitudinal vortex structure is observed in the boundary layer undergoing the H-type transition. The successively staggered
-shaped vortices characterizing the H-type transition are also observed in the downstream boundary layer. The staggered pattern of
-shaped vortices is considered to be caused by temporal modulation of the TS and oblique waves. Interestingly the flow structures of both the K-type and H-type transitions observed in the natural convection boundary layer are qualitatively similar to those observed in Blasius boundary layers. However, an analysis of turbulence energy production suggests that the turbulence energy production by buoyancy rather than Reynolds stresses dominates the K-type and H-type transitions. In contrast, the turbulence energy production by Reynolds stresses is the only factor contributing to the transition in Blasius boundary layers.
This study presents a detailed scaling analysis quantifying the transient behaviour of natural convection in a reservoir model induced by iso-flux surface heating. It is found that horizontal conduction, which has often been neglected in previous analyses, plays an important role in the development of the flow. Depending on the Rayleigh number, three possible pathways through which the flow develops towards the final steady state are identified. A thermal boundary layer initially grows downwards from the surface. When the thermal boundary layer reaches the sloping bottom and becomes indistinct, a horizontal temperature gradient establishes due to the increasing water depth in the offshore direction. A flow is then driven towards the offshore direction by a buoyancy-induced horizontal pressure gradient, which convects away the heat input from the water surface. On the other hand, the horizontal temperature gradient also conducts heat away. The flow behaviour is determined by the interaction between the horizontal conduction and convection. An interesting flow feature revealed by the present scaling analysis is that the region across which the thermal boundary layer encompasses the full water depth shrinks over time at a certain stage of the flow development. The shrinking process eventually stops when this region coincides with a conduction-dominated subregion. The present scaling results are verified by corresponding numerical simulations.
This study considers the natural convection flow in a water body subjected to heating by solar radiation. The investigation into this type of natural convection flow has been motivated by the fact that it is known to play a crucial role in the daytime heat and mass transfer in shallow regions of natural water reservoirs and lakes, with a resultant impact on biological activity. An analytical solution for temperature in such an internally heated system shows that the temperature stratification consists of an upper stable stratification and a lower unstable stratification. One of the important consequences of such a nonlinear temperature stratification is the limitation of the mixing driven by rising thermal plumes with the penetration length scale of the plumes determining the lower mixed layer thickness. A theoretical analysis conducted in the present study suggests that in relatively deep waters, the lower mixed layer thickness is equal to the attenuation length of the radiation, which has important implications for water quality, including the transport of pollutants and nutrients in the water body. Scalings are also obtained for the quasi-steady boundary layer. The theoretical analysis is validated against numerical simulations.
A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or ‘pharmabiotics’. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) antimicrobials and exopolysaccharides in addition to nutrients, including vitamins B and K. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and reductions in microbial diversity are highlighted in many disease states, possibly rendering the host susceptible to infection and consequently negatively affecting innate immune function. Evidence is also emerging of microbially produced molecules with neuroactive functions that can have influences across the brain–gut axis. For example, γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine may modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system, when released in the intestinal lumen and consequently signal brain function and behaviour. Dietary supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics are the most widely used dietary adjuncts to modulate the gut microbiota. Furthermore, evidence is emerging of the interactions between administered microbes and dietary substrates, leading to the production of pharmabiotics, which may directly or indirectly positively influence human health.
Michael Mann is talking about the last two hours of John Dillinger's life, as the infamous and charismatic midwestern bank-robber sat in the Biograph movie theater in Chicago, watching Clark Gable playing Blackie Gallagher, a suspiciously Dillingeresque criminal, in WS Van Dyke's Manhattan Melodrama. “There's even a reference to Dillinger in the early part of the movie!” says Mann. “Imagine being John Dillinger sitting there in the movie house. All your friends are dead; your woman, the true love of your life, is gone. There's fewer and fewer people like you any more. You're facing these gigantic evolutionary forces trying to crush you – organized crime on the one hand and the FBI on the other. And the end is near. You're not a sentimentalist about it – you don't think you're going to live for ever anyway. And you, Dillinger, are sitting there and Clark Gable delivers these words to you, while unbeknownst to you, less than 75 feet away there are 30 FBI agents out there planning to kill you.”
John Dillinger, the Indiana farm boy who robbed more banks than historians can now count, and busted out of not one but two jails, was and remains intimately linked with the movies. He didn't just like Clark Gable movies – he looked like Clark Gable. It is said that he copped his signature move of vaulting elegantly over a bank's counter, one hand on the wood, the other clutching a huge Thompson machine gun, from some Warner Brothers gangster movie or other. Having spent the years 1924 to 1933 – the whole of his 20s – rotting in an Indiana penitentiary for a drunken, botched mugging he always regretted, he was insatiably hungry for life and whatever it could offer in the depths of the Great Depression. Money, women, excitement – sure, he got all these and more in the headlong, event-filled last 13 months of his life, but he also loved the movies, which had gone from silent to sound while he was inside, and he went as often as he could manage.
One scene in Public Enemies, Mann's tremendously gripping account of Dillinger's criminal career, shows him watching a newsreel about himself in a crowded cinema.
To describe the frequency of use of all types of urinary catheters, including but not limited to indwelling catheters, as well as positive cultures associated with the various types. We also determined the accuracy of catheter-days reporting at our institution.
Prospective, observational trial based on patient-level review of the electronic medical record. Chart review was compared with standard methods of catheter surveillance and reporting by infection control personnel.
Ten internal medicine and 5 long-term care wards in 2 tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospitals in Texas from July 2010 through June 2011.
The study included 7,866 inpatients.
Measurements included patient bed-days; days of use of indwelling, external, suprapubic, and intermittent urinary catheters; number of urine cultures obtained and culture results; and infection control reports of indwelling catheter-days.
We observed 7,866 inpatients with 128,267 bed-days on acute medicine and extended care wards during the study. A urinary catheter was used on 36.9% of the total bed-days observed. Acute medicine wards collected more urine cultures per 1,000 bed-days than did the extended care wards (75.9 and 10.4 cultures per 1,000 bed-days, respectively; P < .0001 ). Catheter-days were divided among indwelling-catheter-days (47.8%), external-catheter-days (48.4%), and other (intermittent- and suprapubic-catheter-days, 3.8%). External catheters contributed to 376 (37.3%) of the 1,009 catheter-associated positive urine cultures. Urinary-catheter-days reported to the infection control department missed 20.1% of the actual days of indwelling catheter use, whereas 12.0% of their reported catheter-days were false.
Urinary catheter use was extremely common. External catheters accounted for a large portion of catheter-associated bacteriuria, and standard practices for tracking urinary-catheter-days were unreliable.