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Are legislators responsive to the priorities of the public? Research demonstrates a strong correspondence between the issues about which the public cares and the issues addressed by politicians, but conclusive evidence about who leads whom in setting the political agenda has yet to be uncovered. We answer this question with fine-grained temporal analyses of Twitter messages by legislators and the public during the 113th US Congress. After employing an unsupervised method that classifies tweets sent by legislators and citizens into topics, we use vector autoregression models to explore whose priorities more strongly predict the relationship between citizens and politicians. We find that legislators are more likely to follow, than to lead, discussion of public issues, results that hold even after controlling for the agenda-setting effects of the media. We also find, however, that legislators are more likely to be responsive to their supporters than to the general public.
This article describes target material options for sputter coaters that deposit a thin metal coating on non-conductive SEM samples. Coating a sample with a conductive metal renders an insulating sample conductive enough to minimize charging effects on the SEM image. In most cases, coating SEM samples with only a few nanometers of a metal results in crisp, clear images. Proper target material selection is dictated by overall imaging requirements, the SEM available, the specimen material being evaluated, and whether X-ray microanalysis will be required.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
The electrochemical discharge mechanism is reported for all-solid lithium sulfur batteries. Upon milling with carbon fibers, the solid electrolyte used within the cathode composite becomes electrochemically active. Analysis with Raman spectroscopy and XPS revealed the importance of bridging S-S bond formation and breaking in lithium polysulfidophosphates during electrochemical lithiation of the active solid electrolyte. Remarkably, when sulfur is introduced as an active material in the cathode composite, lithium polysulfides are formed as an intermediate product before full lithiation into lithium sulfide. The synthesis of materials based on bridging S-S bonds is an important avenue to the design of new cathodes for all-solid batteries.
Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services treat most patients in England who present to primary care with major depression. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is one of the psychotherapies offered. Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT) is a psychodynamic and mentalization-based treatment for depression. 16 sessions are delivered over approximately 5 months. Neither DIT's effectiveness relative to low-intensity treatment (LIT), nor the feasibility of randomizing patients to psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) in an IAPT setting has been demonstrated.
147 patients were randomized in a 3:2:1 ratio to DIT (n = 73), LIT (control intervention; n = 54) or CBT (n = 20) in four IAPT treatment services in a combined superiority and feasibility design. Patients meeting criteria for major depressive disorder were assessed at baseline, mid-treatment (3 months) and post-treatment (6 months) using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and other self-rated questionnaire measures. Patients receiving DIT were also followed up 6 months post-completion.
The DIT arm showed significantly lower HRSD-17 scores at the 6-month primary end-point compared with LIT (d = 0.70). Significantly more DIT patients (51%) showed clinically significant change on the HRSD-17 compared with LIT (9%). The DIT and CBT arms showed equivalence on most outcomes. Results were similar with the BDI-II. DIT showed benefit across a range of secondary outcomes.
DIT delivered in a primary care setting is superior to LIT and can be appropriately compared with CBT in future RCTs.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
Endophytes are microorganisms that colonise the internal compartments of host plants without harming the host. In many cases, endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several beneficial effects to their host plant, including growth-promoting activity, modulation of plant metabolism and phytohormone signalling that leads to adaptation to environmental abiotic or biotic stresses. Endophytic bacterial community structure is influenced by plant genotype, soil type, abiotic and biotic factors, such as environmental conditions and microbe–microbe/plant–microbe interactions. In addition, agricultural management practices, such as soil tillage, crop rotation, and fertiliser and pesticide applications have a major effect on the function and structure of the soil, rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important break crop in cereal crop rotation and can significantly reduce the rate of ‘take-all’ fungal disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) and, as a result, improves the yield of subsequent cereal crops. Additionally, oilseed rape is the world’s third largest source of vegetable oil used for human nutrition and as a source of oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, the promotion of agricultural practices that maintain the natural diversity of B. napus endophytic bacteria is receiving attention as an important element for a sustainable agricultural system that ensures crop productivity and quality while reducing inputs. This chapter reviews the existing literature on the role of endophytic bacteria in oilseed rape crop production, agricultural factors influencing oilseed rape bacterial diversity and discusses how meta-omics is enhancing our understanding of the endophytic bacteria and their function.
Inspired by notions of interest of humankind and intergenerational equity, we explored Antarctic perceptions of a subset of future generations—university students. Students at three universities in Canada, the Netherlands, and the USA were surveyed to determine the relationships between nationality, academic major, opinions on values of Antarctica, and support for a range of human activities in Antarctica (n = 618). Logistic regression was used to model the relationship of these variables with support for designation of Antarctica as a wilderness reserve, construction of new research stations, and mining. Compared with business and economics majors, biological sciences and natural resources/conservation majors were more likely to support wilderness designation and less likely to support mineral resource development. Nationality was not significantly associated with support for construction of new research stations and mineral resource development. Opinions on the value of Antarctica and support for activities also exhibited significant influences on dependent variables. Consistent with earlier studies of Antarctic scientists, personnel, tourists, and other members of the general public, university students valued Antarctica as one of the world’s last great wildernesses (66%), an important component of the Earth’s climate system (66%), and a science laboratory for the benefit of mankind (62%).
Dignity therapy (DT) is designed to address psychological and existential challenges that terminally ill individuals face. DT guides patients in developing a written legacy project in which they record and share important memories and messages with those they will leave behind. DT has been demonstrated to ease existential concerns for adults with advanced-stage cancer; however, lack of institutional resources limits wide implementation of DT in clinical practice. This study explores qualitative outcomes of an abbreviated, less resource-intensive version of DT among participants with advanced-stage cancer and their legacy project recipients.
Qualitative methods were used to analyze postintervention interviews with 11 participants and their legacy recipients as well as the created legacy projects. Direct content analysis was used to assess feedback from the interviews about benefits, barriers, and recommendations regarding abbreviated DT. The legacy projects were coded for expression of core values.
Findings suggest that abbreviated DT effectively promotes (1) self-expression, (2) connection with loved ones, (3) sense of purpose, and (4) continuity of self. Participants observed that leading the development of their legacy projects promoted independent reflection, autonomy, and opportunities for family interaction when reviewing and discussing the projects. Consistent with traditional DT, participants expressed “family” as the most common core value in their legacy projects. Expression of “autonomy” was also a notable finding.
Significance of results
Abbreviated DT reduces resource barriers to conducting traditional DT while promoting similar benefits for participants and recipients, making it a promising adaptation warranting further research. The importance that patients place on family and autonomy should be honored as much as possible by those caring for adults with advanced-stage cancer.
Depression is a common and significant health problem. Hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition in the USA and might be a factor in depression. To determine whether hearing loss is associated with depressive symptoms in US adults ages 20–69 years.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2011–2012) were used to assess the potential relationship between hearing loss and depression, in adults (20–69 years) who answered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression screening module, with pure tone audiometry measurements, and complete information on the co-variates data (n = 3316). The degree of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) were defined as slight/mild hearing loss ⩾26–40 dB; moderate/worse hearing loss ⩾41 dB by pure tone audiometry examination.
Moderate/worse HFHL was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms (OR 1.54, 95% CL 1.04–2.27) when the analyses were conducted among all participants. Further stratification by gender and age groups found that moderate/worse HFHL (OR 3.85, 95% CL 1.39–10.65) and moderate/worse SFHL (OR 5.75, 95% CL 1.46–22.71) were associated with depressive symptoms in women ages 52–69 years.
Moderate/worse speech frequency and HFHL are associated with depression in women ages 52–69 years, independent of other risk factors. Hearing screenings are likely to reduce delays in diagnosis and provide early opportunities for noise prevention counseling and access to hearing aids. Health professionals should be aware of depressive signs and symptoms in patients with hearing loss.
We report the discovery of the ultra-luminous quasi-stellar object SMSS J215728.21−360215.1 with magnitude z = 16.9 and W4 = 7.42 at redshift 4.75. Given absolute magnitudes of M145, AB = −29.3, M300, AB = −30.12, and logLbol/Lbol, ⊙ = 14.84, it is the quasi-stellar object with the highest unlensed UV-optical luminosity currently known in the Universe. It was found by combining proper-motion data from Gaia DR2 with photometry from SkyMapper DR1 and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In the GAIA database, it is an isolated single source and thus unlikely to be strongly gravitationally lensed. It is also unlikely to be a beamed source as it is not discovered in the radio domain by either NRAO-VLA Sky Survey or Sydney University Molonglo Southern Survey. It is classed as a weak-emission-line quasi-stellar object and possesses broad absorption line features. A lightcurve from ATLAS spanning the time from 2015 October to 2017 December shows little sign of variability.
Supersonic flows with high Mach number are ubiquitous in astrophysics. High-powered lasers also have the ability to drive high Mach number, radiating shock waves in laboratory plasmas, and recent experiments along these lines have made it possible to recreate analogs of high Mach-number astrophysical flows under controlled conditions. Streak cameras such as the Rochester optical streak system (ROSS) are particularly helpful in diagnosing such experiments, because they acquire spatially resolved measurements of the radiating gas continuously over a large time interval, making it easy to observe how any shock waves and ablation fronts present in the system evolve with time. This paper summarizes new ROSS observations of a laboratory analog of the collision of a stellar wind with an ablating planetary atmosphere embedded within a magnetosphere. We find good agreement between the observed ROSS data and numerical models obtained with the FLASH code, but only when the effects of optical depth are properly taken into account.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 10-year impact of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) along with contributing risk factors and any alteration in chronobiology of AMI.
A single-center, retrospective, comparison study of AMI incidence was performed at Tulane University Health Sciences Center from 2 years before Hurricane Katrina to 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. A 6-year, pre-Katrina and 10-year, post-Katrina cohort were also compared according to pre-specified demographic, clinical, and chronobiological data.
AMI incidence increased from 0.7% (150/21,079) to 2.8% (2,341/84,751) post-Katrina (P<0.001). The post-Katrina cohort had higher rates of coronary artery disease (36.4% vs. 47.9%, P=0.01), diabetes mellitus (31.3% vs. 39.9%, P=0.04), hyperlipidemia (45.4% vs. 59.3%, P=0.005), smoking (34.4% vs. 53.8%, P<0.001), drug abuse (10.2% vs. 15.4%, P=0.02), psychiatric illness (6.7% vs. 14.9%, P<0.001), medication non-adherence (7.3% vs. 15.3%, P<0.001), and lack of employment (7.2% vs. 16.4%, P<0.001). The post-Katrina group had increased rates of AMI during nights (29.8% vs. 47.8%, P<0.001) and weekends (16.1% vs. 29.1%, P<0.001).
Even 10 years after the storm, Hurricane Katrina continues to be associated with increased incidence of AMI, higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors, and an altered chronobiology of AMI toward nights and weekends. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:217–222)
Adolescents’ snacking habits are driven by both explicit reflective and implicit hedonic processes. Hedonic pathways and differences in sensitivity to food rewards in addition to reflective determinants should be considered. The present study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a mobile phone-delivered intervention, incorporating explicit reflective and implicit rewarding strategies, on adolescents’ snack intake.
Adolescents (n 988; mean age 14·9 (sd 0·70) years, 59·4 % boys) completed a non-randomized clustered controlled trial. Adolescents (n 416) in the intervention schools (n 3) were provided with the intervention application for four weeks, while adolescents (n 572) in the control schools (n 3) followed the regular curriculum. Outcomes were differences in healthy snacking ratio and key determinants (awareness, intention, attitude, self-efficacy, habits and knowledge). Process evaluation data were collected via questionnaires and through log data of the app.
No significant positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio (b=−3·52 (se 1·82), P>0·05) or targeted determinants were observed. Only 268 adolescents started using the app, of whom only fifty-five (20·5 %) still logged in after four weeks. Within the group of users, higher exposure to the app was not significantly associated with positive intervention effects. App satisfaction ratings were low in both high and low user groups. Moderation analyses revealed small positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio in high compared with low reward-sensitive boys (b=1·38 (se 0·59), P<0·05).
The intervention was not able to improve adolescents’ snack choices, due to low reach and exposure. Future interventions should consider multicomponent interventions, teacher engagement, exhaustive participatory app content development and tailoring.
Textual data are plagued by underreporting bias. For example, news sources often fail to report human rights violations. Cook et al. propose a multi-source estimator to gauge, and to account for, the underreporting of state repression events within human codings of news texts produced by the Agence France-Presse and Associated Press. We evaluate this estimator with Monte Carlo experiments, and then use it to compare the prevalence and seriousness of underreporting when comparable texts are machine coded and recorded in the World-Integrated Crisis Early Warning System dataset. We replicate Cook et al.’s investigation of human-coded state repression events with our machine-coded events, and validate both models against an external measure of human rights protections in Africa. We then use the Cook et al. estimator to gauge the seriousness and prevalence of underreporting in machine and human-coded event data on human rights violations in Colombia. We find in both applications that machine-coded data are as valid as human-coded data.
We numerically model the dynamics of the Enceladus plume ice grains and define our nominal plume model as having a particle size distribution n(R) ~ R−q with q = 4 and a total particulate mass rate of 16 kg s−1. This mass rate is based on average plume brightness observed by Cassini across a range of orbital positions. The model predicts sample volumes of ~1600 µg for a 1 m2 collector on a spacecraft making flybys at 20–60 km altitudes above the Enceladus surface. We develop two scenarios to predict the concentration of amino acids in the plume based on these assumed sample volumes. We specifically consider Glycine, Serine, α-Alanine, α-Aminoisobutyric acid and Isovaline. The first ‘abiotic’ model assumes that Enceladus has the composition of a comet and finds abundances between 2 × 10−6 to 0.003 µg for dissolved free amino acids and 2 × 10−5 to 0.3 µg for particulate amino acids. The second ‘biotic’ model assumes that the water of Enceladus's ocean has the same amino acid composition as the deep ocean water on Earth. We compute the expected captured mass of amino acids such as Glycine, Serine, and α-Alanine in the ‘biotic’ model to be between 1 × 10−5 to 2 × 10−5 µg for dissolved free amino acids and dissolved combined amino acids and about 0.0002 µg for particulate amino acids. Both models consider enhancements due to bubble bursting. Expected captured mass of amino acids is calculated for a 1 m2 collector on a spacecraft making flybys with a closest approach of 20 km during mean plume activity for the given nominal particle size distribution.
The merits of solar coronal at metric-wavelength (MW) radio have long been recognised (e.g. Pick and Vilmer, 2008). High-fidelity solar radio imaging at these frequencies has however remained challenging. On the one hand, dealing with the small spectral and temporal scales of variation in solar radio emission requires a data product capable of tracking the emission simultaneously across time, frequency and morphology. The Fourier imaging nature of interferometry, on the other hand, severely limits the instrumental ability to gather sufficient information to do this with the required fidelity and resolution. Benefiting from the enormous advances in technology the new generation of instruments, like the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA; Tingay et al. (2013), Bowman et al. (2013)), represent a quantum leap in our ability to gather data suitable for radio solar physics.
The Impact of the Great Recession on Families
Patrick Wightman, Director of Health Analytics for the Center for Population Science and Discovery at the University of Arizona,
Robert F. Schoeni, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the University of Michigan,
Megan E. Patrick, Director of Health Analytics for the Center for Population Science and Discovery at the University of Arizona,
John E. Schulenberg, Professor of Developmental Psychology at the University of Michigan
Over the past thirty years the transition to adulthood has become both more drawn out and more diversified. Young adults are taking longer to complete school, begin careers, get married, and have children, as well as reordering and redefining these milestones. While gradual, these changes nonetheless represent seismic shifts in the demographic landscape of young adulthood. Between 2007 and 2009 a more sudden, but equally drastic shift in the economic landscape of the United States followed in the wake of the Great Recession. This chapter examines the intersection of these long- and short-term events. The context for this examination is young adults’ financial relationships with their families, particularly their parents. We choose this framework for two reasons: First, to the extent that young adults are modifying or delaying the transition to even moderate economic self-sufficiency, they must be obtaining support from other sources. Second, to the extent that families have provided this support, the Great Recession is likely to have affected young adults’ need for additional support and parents’ ability to provide it. To these ends, we first use the Monitoring the Future Study to show how parental financial support provided to young adult children over time tracks very closely with the most prominent changes in the transition to adulthood. Then, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we show how young adults’ economic circumstances were impacted by the recession and how their families responded.
Introduction: Seismic Shifts Sudden and Gradual – The Great Recession and the Transition to Adulthood
In the United States, the Great Recession altered the economic landscape. The period of negative economic growth that lasted from December 2007 to June 2009 was the longest since the Great Depression. It was also in many ways the most severe, especially with respect to employment: roughly 7.5 million jobs were lost between May 2007 and October 2009, more than doubling the national unemployment rate from 4.4 percent to 10.1 percent. Moreover, by 2010, 40 percent of the remaining unemployed had been out of work for six months or longer.
While generally a steady ally of James Madison and the nationalists, Gouverneur Morris, delegate from Pennsylvania, worked from a different conception of republican politics. Morris's republicanism was more old than new, relying on the divided sovereignty of a mixed regime to protect the rights of citizens and minorities. This conception, it is argued here, bears the stamp of Machiavelli, especially regarding the relationship of the classes and the role of the executive. Like Machiavelli—but unlike Madison—Morris wanted to underscore society's class divisions, organizing the representatives of rich and poor into two distinct, and hostile, chambers of the legislature. And like Machiavelli, whose “civil prince” was the champion of the people, Morris's executive was to be the “guardian of the people” and the “guardian of liberty.”