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Recent changes in the tax laws governing retirement plans may offer significant tax advantages to lawyers and other self-employed persons. The author discusses the provisions of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 as they affect self-employed lawyers and compares them with the advantages that may be obtained by incorporation—both firm incorporation and individual incorporations within a firm. He explores a variety of tax issues, including important related Tax Court decisions, and makes recommendations with respect to adopting a strategy by a particular lawyer or firm.
In 2005 at Giza in Egypt, teams working for Dr. Mark Lehner discovered an apparently undisturbed series of dump deposits containing about 1,200 clay sealings dating to the reign of Menkaure, builder of the last major pyramid at Giza. A core group of 424 of these sealings were impressed by just 12 seals distributed to the owners by the central government. By reconstructing the seals of these officials and examining their uses over the period covered by the sequence of dumping deposits, we can gain an important synchronic snapshot of the development of the Egyptian state.
This paper explores the persistence of ecclesiastical influence on higher education in Ireland during an era of far-reaching policy change in the 1960s. The extensive interaction between political and official elites and the Catholic bishops offers a fascinating insight into the complex and contested process of policy formulation during an era of transformation in higher education. This study offers a re-interpretation of Whyte’s thesis that the Irish bishops displayed a ‘new flexibility’ in their response to governmental policy initiatives during this period, especially the initiative for university merger launched by Donogh O’Malley in 1967. Catholic prelates, notably John Charles McQuaid, the influential archbishop of Dublin, were pursuing a traditional Catholic religious and socio-political agenda in higher education, which sought not so much to accommodate new official initiatives as to shape such reforms in the ideological direction favoured by the bishops. McQuaid in particular enjoyed exceptional access to policy-makers and was an indispensable partner in launching the initiative for the university merger. The eventual failure of the merger, which was influenced by the successful resistance of academic elites and the declining significance of religious divisions in higher education, underlined the limits of ecclesiastical power in a rapidly changing society.
The macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the macula, where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). Augmentation of this pigment, typically achieved through diet and supplementation, enhances visual function and protects against progression of age-related macular degeneration. However, it is known that eggs are a rich dietary source of L and Z, in a highly bioavailable matrix. In this single-blind placebo-controlled study, L- and MZ-enriched eggs and control non-enriched eggs were fed to human subjects (mean age 41 and 35 years, respectively) over an 8-week period, and outcome measures included MP, visual function and serum concentrations of carotenoids and cholesterol. Serum carotenoid concentrations increased significantly in control and enriched egg groups, but to a significantly greater extent in the enriched egg group (P<0·001 for L, Z and MZ). There was no significant increase in MP in either study group post intervention, and we saw no significant improvement in visual performance in either group. Total cholesterol increased significantly in each group, but it did not exceed the upper limit of the normative range (6·5 mmol/l). Therefore, carotenoid-enriched eggs may represent an effective dietary source of L, Z and MZ, reflected in significantly raised serum concentrations of these carotenoids, and consequentially improved bioavailability for capture by target tissues. However, benefits in terms of MP augmentation and /or improved visual performance were not realised over the 8-week study period, and a study of greater duration will be required to address these questions.
Between 1984 and 1995 over 450 organic samples were collected from monuments built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms. The most suitable samples were selected for dating. The purpose was to establish a radiocarbon chronology with samples from secure context and collected with the careful techniques required for 14C samples. This chronology is compared to the historical chronology established by reconstructing written documentation.
Nine comets have been detected with either the Arecibo (12.6 cm wavelength) or Goldstone (3.5 cm) radar systems. Included are six nucleus detections and five detections of echoes from coma grains. The radar backscatter cross sections measured for the nuclei correlate well with independent estimates of their sizes and are indicative of surface densities in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 g cm-3. Like most asteroids, comets appear to have surfaces that are very rough at scales much larger than the radar wavelength. Coma echo models can explain the radar cross sections using grain size distributions that include a substantial population of cm-sized grains. A long term goal of the cometary radar program has been the high resolution imaging of a cometary nucleus. Eleven short period comets are potentially detectable over the next two decades a few of which may be suitable for imaging. We are always waiting for the arrival of a new comet with an orbit that brings it within 0.1 AU of the earth.
We conducted a program of research to derive and test the reliability of a clinical prediction rule to identify high-risk older adults using paramedics’ observations.
We developed the Paramedics assessing Elders at Risk of Independence Loss (PERIL) checklist of 43 yes or no questions, including the Identifying Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tool items. We trained 1,185 paramedics from three Ontario services to use this checklist, and assessed inter-observer reliability in a convenience sample. The primary outcome, return to the ED, hospitalization, or death within one month was assessed using provincial databases. We derived a prediction rule using multivariable logistic regression.
We enrolled 1,065 subjects, of which 764 (71.7%) had complete data. Inter-observer reliability was good or excellent for 40/43 questions. We derived a four-item rule: 1) “Problems in the home contributing to adverse outcomes?” (OR 1.43); 2) “Called 911 in the last 30 days?” (OR 1.72); 3) male (OR 1.38) and 4) lacks social support (OR 1.4). The PERIL rule performed better than a proxy measure of clinical judgment (AUC 0.62 vs. 0.56, p=0.02) and adherence was better for PERIL than for ISAR.
The four-item PERIL rule has good inter-observer reliability and adherence, and had advantages compared to a proxy measure of clinical judgment. The ISAR is an acceptable alternative, but adherence may be lower. If future research validates the PERIL rule, it could be used by emergency physicians and paramedic services to target preventative interventions for seniors identified as high-risk.
The xanthophyll carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) are found at the macula, the central part of the retina, where they are referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP is studied in human subjects because of its proven role in enhancing visual function and its putative role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration. These benefits are probably due to the antioxidant and short-wavelength filtering properties of MP. It is known that eggs are a dietary source of L and Z. This experiment was designed to measure the egg yolk carotenoid response to hen supplementation with L, Z and MZ. A total of forty hens were used in the trial and were divided into eight groups of five hens. Each group was supplemented (with about 140 mg active xanthophylls/kg feed) with one of the following oil-based carotenoid formulations for 6 weeks: unesterified L (group 1); L diacetate (group 2); unesterified Z (group 3); Z diacetate (group 4); unesterified MZ (group 5); MZ diacetate (group 6); L–MZ (1:1) diacetate mixture (group 7); L–MZ diacetate (1:3) mixture (group 8). Yolk carotenoid content was analysed weekly (in four randomly selected eggs) by HPLC. We found that hens supplemented with Z diacetate and MZ diacetate produced eggs with significantly greater carotenoid concentrations than their free form counterparts. This finding potentially represents the development of a novel food, suitable to increase MP and its constituent carotenoids in serum.
We describe a system for rapidly screening hundreds of nanoparticle samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The system uses a liquid handling robot to place up to 96 individual samples onto a single standard TEM grid at separate locations. The grid is then transferred into the TEM and automated software is used to acquire multiscale images of each sample. The images are then analyzed to extract metrics on the size, shape, and morphology of the nanoparticles. The system has been used to characterize plasmonically active nanomaterials.
In their recent report, Cook and Comstock (2014) purport to address the "old wood" problem in temperate eastern North America. Here we point out several interpretive and analytical errors in their work. We conclude that careful selection of wood charcoal for radiocarbon assay can result in accurate chronology for events of interest. However, this does not obviate the need to critically assess the extant database of wood charcoal dates in any chronology building effort.
With the recent four hundredth anniversary of the sailing of the Spanish Armada came a virtual flood of new works concerning the great invasion fleet and the English ships that opposed it. While it would seem that there would be little new to say about such a heavily researched subject, there is one aspect of this momentous year that has been received relatively short shrift by historians of the period, the national mobilization of England to meet the threatened invasion. Often referred to as the Great Muster of 1588 because one of its most important elements was the muster of the militia to fill the ranks of the army, it was an administrative feat of massive scope that involved months of preparation, extensive military planning, and precise timing. Because these arrangements were never tested in battle, however, the effectiveness of this effort is hard to judge, and its importance is often missed by historians. While Garrett Mattingly devoted an entire chapter of his well known work on the Armada year to events on land, he found the queen's visit to the army at Tilbury after the departure of the Armada more important, or at least more interesting, than the actual state of the nation's defense. More recently, Geoffrey Parker has used the discovery of a large quantity of siege equipment on an excavated armada wreck as a jumping off point for his article “If The Armada Had Landed.” Approaching the issue from the standpoint of a historian of the Army of Flanders, and leaning heavily on continental sources, he adheres to the view that England was totally unprepared for fighting on land if the Spanish had succeeded in landing troops on the island. While this view reflects the common opinion of both nineteenthand twentieth-century historians on the subject, a careful review of English sources, particularly the surviving muster records, military papers, and coastal surveys, leaves a good deal of doubt concerning the accuracy of Parker's judgment. It is the purpose of this article to examine the English side of the story of the Great Muster of 1588, by illustrating the extensive defensive preparations that were organized to face the Spanish threat.
Phillip A. Cooke, Lecturer in Composition at the University of Aberdeen,David Maw, Tutor and Research Fellow in Music at Oriel College, Oxford, holding Lectureships also at Christ Church, The Queen's and Trinity Colleges
Herbert Howells was notorious for revisiting works, revising and restructuring – from chamber works like the Third String Quartet, In Gloucestershire (HH 62, which exists in at least three versions: see Chapter 8) to the substantial reworking of the Requiem (HH 188) to form Hymnus paradisi (HH 220), it seems that Howells was rarely satisfied. However, one work stands apart in personal significance – his Cello Concerto (HH 205–7). Starting it in 1933, Howells worked on it throughout his life, even revisiting it close to his death. It was clearly an important work for him, and on more than one occasion he referred to its slow movement as his finest work. This article serves as an introduction: to contextualise it by outlining its history; to discuss elements of structure and style; and to consider our hermeneutical approach to Howells, here and in the rest of his output.
There are several compelling reasons why a hermeneutical approach to Howells should be considered, and is, arguably, overdue. This particular branch of analysis, within which the emphasis is shifted from issues of structure and technique, towards issues of meaning and context, which are ‘empathetic rather than empirically verifiable’, is perhaps the key to demonstrating why Howells the composer deserves a more widespread consideration. Through the success of Christopher Palmer's A Centenary Celebration and Paul Spicer's biography, a clearer picture of Howells the man is starting to emerge, but the next step, of linking our understanding of Howells the man and his music, is much harder.