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Objectives: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IICV) has been shown to differentiate between groups with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. This study examined whether baseline IICV predicted subsequent mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a cognitively normal baseline sample. Methods: Participants with 4 waves of cognitive assessment were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP; n=684; 53.6(6.6) baseline age; 9.1(1.0) years follow-up; 70% female; 74.6% parental history of Alzheimer’s disease). The primary outcome was Wave 4 cognitive status (“cognitively normal” vs. “impaired”) determined by consensus conference; “impaired” included early MCI (n=109), clinical MCI (n=11), or dementia (n=1). Primary predictors included two IICV variables, each based on the standard deviation of a set of scores: “6 Factor IICV” and “4 Test IICV”. Each IICV variable was tested in a series of logistic regression models to determine whether IICV predicted cognitive status. In exploratory analyses, distribution-based cutoffs incorporating memory, executive function, and IICV patterns were used to create and test an MCI risk variable. Results: Results were similar for the IICV variables: higher IICV was associated with greater risk of subsequent impairment after covariate adjustment. After adjusting for memory and executive functioning scores contributing to IICV, IICV was not significant. The MCI risk variable also predicted risk of impairment. Conclusions: While IICV in middle-age predicts subsequent impairment, it is a weaker risk indicator than the memory and executive function scores contributing to its calculation. Exploratory analyses suggest potential to incorporate IICV patterns into risk assessment in clinical settings. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1016–1025)
Most tall fescue in the United States is infected with a fungal endophyte which imparts certain advantages to the plant, such as drought tolerance, insect feeding deterrence, and enhanced mineral uptake. However, the endophyte also produces ergot alkaloids that are harmful to livestock and contribute to fescue toxicosis. Because the alkaloids are concentrated in seed and stems, a potential way to reduce the likelihood of fescue toxicosis is by suppressing seedhead formation with herbicides. Research was conducted from 2012 to 2014 using metsulfuron applied alone and in combination with other herbicides in spring to determine the growth response of tall fescue, effects on forage quality, and ergot alkaloid concentration. Clipping or metsulfuron applied alone or in combination with aminocyclopyrachlor or aminopyralid reduced seedhead density by 36 to 55% compared to the nontreated control. Treatments containing metsulfuron reduced spring harvest yield 35 to 61%, but no differences were observed in the summer or year-after harvests. The same treatments increased crude protein levels by 1.03 to 2.14% and reduced acid detergent fiber levels by 1.60 to 2.76% compared to the nontreated control at spring harvest. Treatments containing metsulfuron reduced ergot alkaloid concentration 26 to 34% at the spring harvest, but no differences were observed in summer-harvested forage. Results from this study indicate metsulfuron applied alone or in combination with aminocyclopyrachlor or aminopyralid can potentially reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis and improve forage quality.
The notion of a “Millennial” generation, much like a “Generation X” or the “Baby Boom” generation, with a strong coherence in terms of values and norms that differ from previous cohorts, has been of dependable interest in the popular press. However, given what we know regarding the proportion of trait expression due to sources largely immune to cohort effects (e.g., large genetic contributions), how difficult it is for us to systematically influence their expression (e.g., small long-term parental effects), and the massive variation within groups, the meta-analytic work of Costanza, Fraser, Badger, Severt, and Gade (2012) underscores what should already be known from first principles; generation or cohorts are inevitably a poor predictor of anything. The literature on ingroup/outgroup bias (Hogg & Abrams, 1990), stereotype formation (Mackie, Hamilton, Susskind, & Rosselli, 1996), and reconstructive memory issues (Schacter, 1999) provides ample underlying evidence for how these generational overgeneralizations form.
We present a demonstration of a Bayesian spatial probit model for a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions. If voting behavior is spatially correlated, spatial interdependence exists within the data, and standard probit models will result in biased and inconsistent estimated nonbid coefficients. Adjusting sample WTP to population WTP requires unbiased estimates of the nonbid coefficients, and we find a $17 difference in population WTP per household in a standard vs. spatial model. We conclude that failure to correctly model spatial dependence can lead to differences in WTP estimates with potentially important policy ramifications.
Certain sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides are used to remove overseeded cool-season species from bermudagrass. The effects of nitrogen (N) on the efficacy of a new SU herbicide, flazasulfuron, have not been determined. Field and laboratory studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 evaluating the efficacy of flazasulfuron for control of overseeded perennial ryegrass contaminated with annual bluegrass. Flazasulfuron was applied at rates of 4.4, 8.8, and 17.5 g ha−1 alone, and in between sequential applications of N fertilizer at 73 kg N ha−1. N was granularly applied immediately prior to herbicide treatment and 4 wk later. In both years, the level of annual bluegrass control with flazasulfuron and two applications of N at 73 kg N ha−1 was significantly greater than following treatment with flazasulfuron alone. This response was observed for all application rates of flazasulfuron on every rating date. The level of annual bluegrass control with flazasulfuron at 4.4 g ha−1 and two applications of N at 73 kg ha−1 was greater than flazasulfuron at 17.5 g ha−1 alone each year. No significant differences in perennial ryegrass control were observed for flazasulfuron with and without N fertility. In laboratory studies with annual bluegrass, treatment with N fertilizer at 73 kg N ha−1 increased translocation of 14C flazasulfuron (and any potential metabolites) from treated annual bluegrass leaves to other shoot tissues by 18% at 1 h after treatment and 22% at 4 h after treatment compared to plants not treated with N fertilizer. This increase in translocation may explain the increased level of annual bluegrass control observed in the field.
Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is thought to negatively impact cognitive function; however, the relationship has not been well explored.
Objective: This study examined the association between depression severity and global cognitive function and memory in subjects with severe, treatment-resistant MDD.
Methods: We enrolled 66 subjects with Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosed unipolar MDD in a multicenter trial to assess the efficacy and neurocognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We measured depression severity with the 24 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24). Neuropsychologic measures included the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Complex Figure Test (CFT). Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between depression severity and cognitive function.
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 53.6 years (SD=15.8), 65% were female, and mean HRSD24 was 33.9 (SD=6.7). Mean demographic-corrected T-scores for each neurocognitive measure were in the average to borderline range, and HRSD24 values were unrelated to performance on the MMSE, RAVLT immediate and delayed recall, and CFT immediate and delayed recall.
Conclusion: In this sample of severely depressed subjects referred for ECT, depression severity was unrelated to global cognitive function or memory. Future research should examine the interactions between other depressive characteristics and neurocognitive function.
Field studies were conducted near Knoxville, TN, from 2003 to 2005 to evaluate the response of ‘Thermal Blue’, a new interspecific hybrid Kentucky bluegrass to commonly applied PRE and POST herbicides for weed management. Dithiopyr, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, quinclorac, and trifluralin applied at seeding injured hybrid bluegrass greater than 81% and reduced hybrid bluegrass cover greater than 57%. In a second study, established hybrid bluegrass was treated POST with acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides including bispyribac-sodium, chlorosulfuron, foramsulfuron, halosulfuron, imazapic, imazaquin, metsulfuron, rimsulfuron, sulfosulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron at low and high rates (one and two times the suggested use rates in Kentucky bluegrass or other turfgrasses). By 5 wk after treatment (WAT), foramsulfuron at 88 g ai/ha and trifloxysulfuron at 35 g ai/ha injured hybrid bluegrass greater than 26% and reduced visually estimated quality and chlorophyll meter indices. However, hybrid bluegrass injury was no longer evident at 10 WAT. In a third study, established hybrid bluegrass was treated with clethodim, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, and sethoxydim applied at low, medium, and high rates (0.5, 1, and 2 times the registered Kentucky bluegrass or other turfgrass use rates). Clethodim applied at 280 and 560 g ai/ha, fluazifop at 420 g ai/ha, and sethoxydim at 630 g ai/ha injured hybrid bluegrass 5 WAT. These treatments also reduced quality (to less than 5 on a scale of 1 to 9) and chlorophyll meter indices (24 to 37%) when compared to the untreated control. By 10 WAT, only clethodim at 560 g ai/ha caused injury (14%). By 10 WAT, hybrid bluegrass had recovered and injury was only observed in plots treated with clethodim at 560 g ai/ha. No differences in chlorophyll indices or quality were observed at 10 WAT for any POST graminicides.
Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing evidence that variant genes may indeed determine the biological response to nutrients. The effects of single-gene variants on risk or risk factor levels of a complex disease are, however, usually small and sometimes inconsistent. Thus, information on the effects of combinations of relevant gene variants appears to be required in order to improve the predictive precision of the genetic information. Furthermore, very few associations between genotype and response have been tested for causality in human intervention studies, and little is known about potential adverse effects of a genotype-derived intervention. These issues need to be addressed before genotyping can become an acceptable method to guide nutritional recommendations.
Annual bluegrass is one of the most difficult-to-control weeds in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Field trials were conducted in 2003 and 2005 to evaluate bispyribac-sodium for annual bluegrass management in creeping bentgrass greens maintained at a 3 mm mowing height. Bispyribac-sodium applied weekly at 12 or 24 g ai/ha controlled annual bluegrass 86% 12 wk after initial treatment (WAIT). In 2003, bispyribac-sodium applied at 12 and 24 g/ha/wk injured creeping bentgrass approximately 15 and 50% by 4 WAIT, respectively. However, injury was transient and was not evident by 12 WAIT. In 2005, the 12 and 24 g/ha/wk injured creeping bentgrass 15 and 85% by 8 WAIT, respectively, and was still evident throughout the trial. Putting green quality was reduced when compared to nontreated creeping bentgrass by the same treatments. The removal of annual bluegrass caused soil exposure until creeping bentgrass grew over the bare areas, contributing to decreased quality evaluations. Management of annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass putting greens is possible with bispyribac-sodium. However, these results indicate bispyribac-sodium can cause excessive injury when applied to creeping bentgrass mowed at 3 mm.
Having apparently abandoned war as a device for settling their own quarrels, developed countries, in the wake of the Cold War, have had an opportunity to cooperate to deal with the two chief remaining sources of artificial or human-made death: civil war and vicious regimes. In addition, international law has evolved to allow them to do so, variously conferring legitimacy on most international policing measures even when they involve the use of military force and even when they violate the policed country's sovereignty.
Until 2003, these policing ventures had generally been successful, at least in their own terms. However, despite this general record of success, it seems unlikely that developed countries will be able to carry out such exercises with any sort of consistency or reliability. This is because they often have little interest in humanitarian problems in distant areas of the globe, because they sometimes subscribe to a misguided impression about ancient ethnic hatreds that provides them with a convenient excuse for neglect, because they have a low tolerance for casualties in such ventures, because they have an aversion to the costs and problems that attend long-term policing, because there seems to be little domestic political gain from success in policing ventures, and because they harbour something of a bias against undertakings that could be construed as aggression.
Moreover, the war upon Iraq being conducted by the United States and the United Kingdom will very likely substantially reinforce the developed world's already considerable reticence about such enterprises.
Having apparently abandoned war as a device for settling their own quarrels, developed countries, in the wake of the Cold War, have had an opportunity to cooperate to deal with the two chief remaining sources of artificial or human-made death: civil war and vicious regimes. In addition, international law has evolved to allow them to do so, variously conferring legitimacy on most international policing measures even when they involve the use of military force and even when they violate the policed country’s sovereignty.
Field studies were conducted from 1998 to 2000 in Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Oklahoma to determine the effects of sulfentrazone carryover to a cotton rotational crop from sulfentrazone applied the previous year. Sulfentrazone applied the previous year at 400 g/ha caused no yield loss in Tennessee, >30% yield reduction in Oklahoma, and 20% yield loss in Arkansas and North Carolina. In most experiments in this study, visual evaluations of injury closely correlated with final cotton lint yield (r2 =0.84).
Site-specific weed management can increase crop production efficiency by minimizing herbicide input costs without compromising crop yields. A reduction in herbicide inputs resulting from site-specific weed management may also decrease the probability level of nonpoint pollution compared with conventional herbicide applications. A 4.5-ha field was selected to compare site-specific and conventional weed management techniques in 1997 and 1998 at Knoxville, TN. Variable rate applications (VRAs) of atrazine preemergence (PRE) followed by dicamba postemergence (POST) were investigated for the reduction of herbicide inputs and their resulting impact on weed control and corn yield. VRAs of atrazine were on the basis of weed density data collected in 1996. VRAs of dicamba were according to common cocklebur density evaluations within the field. Compared with conventional applications, atrazine usage was decreased by 43 and 32% in the site-specific application treatments in 1997 and 1998, respectively. VRAs of dicamba reduced herbicide inputs by greater than 45% for 1997 and 1998. Corn yields were similar for the conventional and site-specific treatments in both years. On the basis of these data, site-specific herbicide applications have the greatest potential and least risk for managing weeds when POST or PRE + POST variable rate herbicide applications are used.
Herbicide soil/solution distribution coefficients (Kd) are used in mathematical models to predict the movement of herbicides in soil and groundwater. Herbicides bind to various soil constituents to differing degrees. The universal soil colloid that binds most herbicides is organic matter (OM), however clay minerals (CM) and metallic hydrous oxides are more retentive for cationic, phosphoric, and arsenic acid compounds. Weakly basic herbicides bind to both organic and inorganic soil colloids. The soil organic carbon (OC) affinity coefficient (Koc) has become a common parameter for comparing herbicide binding in soil; however, because OM and OC determinations vary greatly between methods and laboratories, Koc values may vary greatly. This proposal discusses this issue and offers suggestions for obtaining the most accurate Kd, Freundlich constant (Kf), and Koc values for herbicides listed in the WSSA Herbicide Handbook and Supplement.