To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Health and Physical Education provides readers with the knowledge, understanding and skills required to successfully teach health and physical education in Australia. With emphasis on the development of movement competence and health literacy from the early years to secondary, this book brings together research, theory, curriculum and pedagogy in an engaging introduction for pre-service teachers. Now in its fourth edition, Health and Physical Education has been thoroughly updated, and features a new chapter covering ethics, morals the and duty of care and their practical application in school health and physical education. Maintaining strong connections to learners of all ages, the text links closely to the Early Years Learning Framework and the recently updated Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education. Each chapter is framed by the five propositions of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education, and includes vignettes, activities and discussion and review questions to encourage reflection and group work.
Theories of early cooperation in human society often draw from a small sample of ethnographic studies of surviving populations of hunter–gatherers, most of which are now sedentary. Borneo hunter–gatherers (Punan, Penan) have seldom figured in comparative research because of a decades-old controversy about whether they are the descendants of farmers who adopted a hunting and gathering way of life. In 2018 we began an ethnographic study of a group of still-nomadic hunter–gatherers who call themselves Punan Batu (Cave Punan). Our genetic analysis clearly indicates that they are very unlikely to be the descendants of neighbouring agriculturalists. They also preserve a song language that is unrelated to other languages of Borneo. Dispersed travelling groups of Punan Batu with fluid membership use message sticks to stay in contact, co-operate and share resources as they journey between rock shelters and forest camps. Message sticks were once widespread among nomadic Punan in Borneo, but have largely disappeared in sedentary Punan villages. Thus the small community of Punan Batu offers a rare glimpse of a hunting and gathering way of life that was once widespread in the forests of Borneo, where prosocial behaviour extended beyond the face-to-face community, facilitating successful collective adaptation to the diverse resources of Borneo's forests.
Computerised neuropsychological assessments (CNAs) are proposed as an alternative method of assessing cognition to traditional pencil-and-paper assessment (PnPA), which are considered the “gold standard” for diagnosing dementia. However, limited research has been conducted with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) individuals. This study investigated the suitability of PnPAs and CNAs for measuring cognitive performance in a heterogenous sample of older, Australian CALD English-speakers compared to a native English-speaking background (ESB) sample.
Participants were 1037 community-dwelling individuals aged 70–90 years without a dementia diagnosis from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (873 ESB, 164 CALD). Differences in the level and pattern of cognitive performance in the CALD group were compared to the ESB group on a newly developed CNA and a comprehensive PnPA in English, controlling for covariates. Multiple hierarchical regression was used to identify the extent to which linguistic and acculturation variables explained performance variance.
CALD participants’ performance was consistently poorer than ESB participants on both PnPA and CNA, and more so on PnPA than CNA, controlling for socio-demographic and health factors. Linguistic and acculturation variables together explained approximately 20% and 25% of CALD performance on PnPA and CNA respectively, above demographics and self-reported computer use.
Performances of CALD and ESB groups differed more on PnPAs than CNAs, but caution is needed in concluding that CNAs are more culturally-appropriate for assessing cognitive decline in older CALD individuals. Our findings extend current literature by confirming the influence of linguistic and acculturation variables on cognitive assessment outcomes for older CALD Australians.
This paper presents a compilation of atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950–2019, derived from atmospheric CO2 sampling and tree rings from clean-air sites. Following the approach taken by Hua et al. (2013), our revised and extended compilation consists of zonal, hemispheric and global radiocarbon (14C) data sets, with monthly data sets for 5 zones (Northern Hemisphere zones 1, 2, and 3, and Southern Hemisphere zones 3 and 1–2). Our new compilation includes smooth curves for zonal data sets that are more suitable for dating applications than the previous approach based on simple averaging. Our new radiocarbon dataset is intended to help facilitate the use of atmospheric bomb 14C in carbon cycle studies and to accommodate increasing demand for accurate dating of recent (post-1950) terrestrial samples.
Borings and bite marks on fossil turtle carapaces and plastra from the Miocene Moghra Formation, northern Egypt, are herein described. All fossil turtle material from Moghra exhibits ichnofossils. The positions of invertebrate borings on external surfaces of tortoise and turtle shell material at Moghra are consistent with the activities of ectoparasites or mesoparasites.
A single invertebrate ichnotaxon, Karethraichnus lakkos Zonneveld et al., 2016, occurs on Moghra tortoise fossils. This trace fossil was likely emplaced by ixodid arthropods (ticks). Bite marks assigned to Nihilichnus occur on a carapace peripheral and are interpreted to reflect postmortem scavenging. An abundant and moderately diverse assemblage of invertebrate borings characterizes Moghra aquatic turtle shells. Karethraichnus lakkos and Thatchtelithichnus holmani Zonneveld et al., 2016 traces on aquatic turtles are interpreted to reflect leech and/or trematode parasitism. Gunnellichnus moghraensis (new ichnogenus new ichnospecies) and G. akolouthiste (n. isp.) likely reflect bacterial and/or fungal infections on aquatic turtle shells that rarely dried out.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
High dietary phosphorus (P), particularly soluble salts, may contribute to chronic kidney disease development in cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of P supplied at 1 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ) from a highly soluble P salt in P-rich dry format feline diets. Seventy-five healthy adult cats (n 25/group) were fed either a low P control (1·4 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ]; Ca:P ratio 0·97) or one of two test diets with 4 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ); Ca:P 1·04 or 5 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ); Ca:P 1·27, both incorporating 1 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) – for a period of 30 weeks in a randomised parallel-group study. Health markers in blood and urine, glomerular filtration rate, renal ultrasound and bone density were assessed at baseline and at regular time points. At the end of the test period, responses following transition to a commercial diet (total P – 2·34 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ], Ca:P 1·3) for a 4-week washout period were also assessed. No adverse effects on general, kidney or bone (skeletal) function and health were observed. P and Ca balance, some serum biochemistry parameters and regulatory hormones were increased in cats fed test diets from week 2 onwards (P ≤ 0·05). Data from the washout period suggest that increased serum creatinine and urea values observed in the two test diet groups were influenced by dietary differences during the test period, and not indicative of changes in renal function. The present data suggest no observed adverse effect level for feline diets containing 1 g P/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) from STPP and total P level of up to 5 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) when fed for 30 weeks.
There are numerous health effects associated with excess sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Interventions aimed at reducing population-level consumption require understanding of the relevant barriers and facilitators. This study aimed to identify the variables with the strongest relationship with intentions to reduce SSB consumption from a suite of variables derived from the literature.
Random-digit dialling of landline and mobile phones was used to survey adults using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The outcome variable was ‘likelihood of reducing SSB consumption in next 6 months’, and the predictor variables were demographics, SSB attitudes and behaviour, health risk perceptions and social/environmental exposure.
A subsample of 1630 regular SSB consumers from a nationally representative sample of 3430 Australian adults (38 % female, 51 % aged 18–45 years, 56 % overweight or obese).
Respondents indicated that they were ‘not at all’ (30·1 %), ‘somewhat’ (43·9 %) and ‘very likely’ (25·3 %) to reduce SSB consumption. Multivariate nominal logistic regressions showed that perceiving future health to be ‘very much’ at risk was the strongest predictor of intention to reduce SSB consumption (OR = 8·1, 95 % CI 1·8, 37·0, P < 0·01). Other significant predictors (P < 0·01) included self-perceptions about too much consumption, habitual consumption, difficulty reducing consumption and likelihood of benefitting from reduced consumption.
Health risk perceptions had the strongest relationship with intentions to reduce consumption. Age and consumption perceptions were also predictors in the multivariate models, whereas social/environmental exposure variables were not. Interventions may seek to incorporate strategies to denormalise consumption practices and increase knowledge about perceived susceptibility to health risks.