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In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
Increasingly, narrative and creative arts approaches are being used to enhance recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Narrative and arts-based approaches congruent with Indigenous storytelling may therefore provide benefit during the transition from hospital to home for some Indigenous TBI patients. This qualitative study explored the use and impact of this approach as part of a larger, longitudinal study of TBI transition with Indigenous Australians.
A combined narrative and arts-based approach was used with one Indigenous Australian artist to describe his transition experiences following TBI. Together with the researchers and filmmaking team, the artist was involved in aspects of the process. The artist contributed two paintings, detailing the story of his life and TBI. Based on the artworks, a film was co-created. Following the viewing of the film, impacts of the narrative and arts-based process were examined through semi-structured interviews with the artist, a service provider and a family member. Multiple sources of data were used in the final thematic analysis including transcripts of the interviews and filming, paintings (including storylines) and researcher notes.
Positive impacts from the process for the artist included positive challenge; healing and identity; understanding TBI and raising awareness.
This approach may enable the individual to take ownership over their transition story and to make sense of their life following TBI at a critical point in their recovery. A combined narrative and arts-based approach has potential as a culturally responsive rehabilitation tool for use with Indigenous Australians during the transition period following TBI.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The Foothills Erratics Train consists of large quartzite blocks of Rocky Mountains origin deposited on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in Alberta between ~53.5°N and 49°N. The blocks were deposited in their present locations when the western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) detached from the local ice masses of the Rocky Mountains, which initiated the opening of the southern end of the ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and the LIS. We use 10Be exposure dating to constrain the beginning of this decoupling. Based on a group of 12 samples well-clustered in time, we date the detachment of the western LIS margin from the Rocky Mountain front to ~14.9 ± 0.9 ka. This is ~1000 years later than previously assumed, but a lack of a latitudinal trend in the ages over a distance of ~500 km is consistent with the rapid opening of a long wedge of unglaciated terrain portrayed in existing ice-retreat reconstructions. A later separation of the western LIS margin from the mountain front implies higher ice margin–retreat rates in order to meet the Younger Dryas ice margin position near the boundary of the Canadian Shield ~2000 years later.
(1) To characterise changes in dead space fraction during the first 120 post-operative hours in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, including hybrid procedure; (2) to document whether dead space fraction varied by shunt type (Blalock–Taussig shunt and Sano) and hybrid procedure; and (3) to determine the association between dead space fraction and outcomes.
Retrospective chart review in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit over a consecutive 30-month period. A linear mixed model was used to determine the differences in dead space over time. Multivariable linear regression and a multivariable linear mixed model were used to assess the association between dead space and outcomes at different time points and over time, respectively.
Thirty-four neonates received either a Blalock–Taussig shunt (20.5%), Sano shunt (59%), or hybrid procedure (20.5%). Hospital mortality was 8.8%. Dead space fractions in patients undergoing the hybrid procedure were significantly lower on day 1 (p = 0.01) and day 2 (p = 0.02) and increased over time. A dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was significantly associated with decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups (p < 0.001).
Dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was associated with lower duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups. A more comprehensive, prospective assessment of dead space in this delicate patient population would likely be beneficial in improving outcomes.
To Investigate the peripheral inflammatory profile in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from three subgroups – probable Lewy body disease (probable MCI-LB), possible Lewy body disease, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (probable MCI-AD) – as well as associations with clinical features.
Memory clinics and dementia services.
Patients were classified based on clinical symptoms as probable MCI-LB (n = 38), possible MCI-LB (n = 18), and probable MCI-AD (n = 21). Healthy comparison subjects were recruited (n = 20).
Ten cytokines were analyzed from plasma samples: interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. C-reactive protein levels were investigated.
There was a higher level of IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-4 in MCI groups compared to the healthy comparison group (p < 0.0085). In exploratory analyses to understand these findings, the MC-AD group lower IL-1beta (p = 0.04), IL-2 (p = 0.009), and IL-4 (p = 0.012) were associated with increasing duration of memory symptoms, and in the probable MCI-LB group, lower levels of IL-1beta were associated with worsening motor severity (p = 0.002). In the possible MCI-LB, longer duration of memory symptoms was associated with lower levels of IL-1beta (p = 0.003) and IL-4 (p = 0.026).
There is increased peripheral inflammation in patients with MCI compared to healthy comparison subjects regardless of the MCI subtype. These possible associations with clinical features are consistent with other work showing that inflammation is increased in early disease but require replication. Such findings have importance for timing of putative therapeutic strategies aimed at lowering inflammation.
We present a workflow to track icebergs in proglacial fjords using oblique time-lapse photos and the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. We employ the workflow at LeConte Bay, Alaska, where we ran five time-lapse cameras between April 2016 and September 2017, capturing more than 400 000 photos at frame rates of 0.5–4.0 min−1. Hourly to daily average velocity fields in map coordinates illustrate dynamic currents in the bay, with dominant downfjord velocities (exceeding 0.5 m s−1 intermittently) and several eddies. Comparisons with simultaneous Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements yield best agreement for the uppermost ADCP levels (~ 12 m and above), in line with prevalent small icebergs that trace near-surface currents. Tracking results from multiple cameras compare favorably, although cameras with lower frame rates (0.5 min−1) tend to underestimate high flow speeds. Tests to determine requisite temporal and spatial image resolution confirm the importance of high image frame rates, while spatial resolution is of secondary importance. Application of our procedure to other fjords will be successful if iceberg concentrations are high enough and if the camera frame rates are sufficiently rapid (at least 1 min−1 for conditions similar to LeConte Bay).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To understand the mechanisms of how a non-antimicrobial can reshape a commensal microbe community to cure a ubiquitous human disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Whole genome sequencing of bacterial isolates, metabolomic investigations of previously collected skin microbe isolates from patients, and structural investigations of a protein from these skin microbes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Metabolic pathways associated with adaptation to a changing skin microenvironment, novel antimicrobial characterization, and a structural understanding of a novel nutrient acquisition protein. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Multiple angles of this investigation are poised to improve current non-antimicrobial dermatologic treatments and they have the potential to impact microbe-related diseases in other human microenvironments.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Abnormalities in sensorimotor behavior are present in the majority of individuals with ASD and associated with core symptoms. Cortico-cerebellar networks that control sensorimotor behavior have been implicated in ASD, but little is known about their function during sensorimotor actions. The purpose of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine cortical-cerebellar function during feedback-guided motor behavior in ASD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Individuals with ASD (11-30 years; N = 18) and age-matched controls (N = 15) completed a visuomotor task of feedback-guided precision gripping during fMRI. Participants pressed with their right thumb and forefinger on a force transducer while viewing a green FORCE bar on a screen that moved upwards with increased force toward a fixed white TARGET bar. Individuals were instructed to maintain the FORCE bar at the level of the TARGET bar for 24 seconds. Target force levels were set at 20% and 60% of each participant’s maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Force variability was characterized as the coefficient of variation (i.e., standard deviation of the force time series / mean force output; CoV). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mean force did not differ between groups indicating participants were able to follow task demands. Participants with ASD showed increased force variability (F(1,30) = 5.214, p = 0.03) at both 20% (d = .45) and 60% (d = .77) MVC compared to controls. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD showed decreased activation in left angular gyrus during the visuomotor task compared to rest (AG; maximum t = 4.31). Individuals with ASD also showed greater visuomotor activation compared to controls in ipsilateral ventral M1, extending anteriorly into posterior ventral pre-motor cortex (PMv; maximum t = −4.06, cluster size = 38 voxels). This difference reflected the finding that control participants showed a selective deactivation of ipsilateral M1/PMv during visuomotor behavior, whereas individuals with ASD did not show this pattern. A significant group x force interaction was observed for contralateral Crus I activation (maximum t = −2.42) that was driven by an increase in activity during 60% compared to 20% MVC in control participants, while individuals with ASD showed no change in Crus I activation between force levels. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increased force variability in individuals with ASD suggests impaired processing of sensory feedback to guide precision motor behaviors. Individuals with ASD did not show deactivation of right motor cortex during visuomotor behavior relative to rest, suggesting reduced ability to selectively modulate motor cortical output. Reduced activation in left AG may reflect an inability to integrate visual, haptic, and proprioceptive inputs to reactively adjust ongoing motor output. Failure to show force-dependent scaling of Crus I in ASD suggests lateral cerebellar circuits do not adapt sensory prediction and error processes to maintain precision motor output during more demanding conditions. Together, our results demonstrate multiple cortical-cerebellar mechanisms associated with sensorimotor imprecision in ASD.
Centenarians have survived into very late life, but whether they reach very old age in good health remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular health status and cognitive functioning of centenarians in the United States with centenarians in Japan.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
This cross-national design compared centenarians from the United States and Japan. The sample of U.S. centenarians was recruited from the Georgia Centenarian Study and included 287 centenarians. The sample of Japanese centenarians was recruited from the Tokyo Centenarian Study and included 304 centenarians.
Cognitive functioning was assessed with a mental status questionnaire, and cardiovascular disease by a health history assessment, blood pressure, and selected blood parameters.
The results suggest that Tokyo centenarians had lower disease experiences and BMI values, when compared to Georgia centenarians, but blood pressure was higher among Japanese centenarians. Lower levels of hemoglobin in Japanese centenarians and higher levels of C-reactive protein in Georgia were also found. The positive association of hypertension and albumin levels with cognitive functioning and the negative association of stroke occurrence with cognitive functioning were replicated in both countries. Differential effects were obtained for heart problems, BMI, and C-reactive protein (with positive effects for Tokyo centenarians, except for C-reactive protein).
For extremely old individuals, some markers of cardiovascular disease are replicable across countries, whereas differential effects for cardiovascular health also need to be considered in cardiovascular health.
The Czech astronomer František Nušl (1867–1951) was professor of mathematics, practical astronomy and geometrical optics at Prague Charles University. His scientific contribution to astronomy consisted mainly of inventing and constructing of new astronomical and geodetical instruments. Together with his friend Josef Jan Frič, founder of the Ondřejov Observatory, he developed and improved the circumzenithal telescope (1899–1903–1906–1922–1932), a portable instrument with a mercury horizon for determining the geodetic position using the Gauss method of equal altitudes. This instrument won the gold medal at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris in 1937. Nušl, independently of Ernst Öpik, invented the wobbling mirror for determining the velocity of meteors by visual observation, and constructed an unique guiding system for the Ondrejov astrograph etc. The organizational activities of Frantisek Nušl were considerably rich, too: He was one of the founders of the Czech Astronomical Society in 1917, in the years 1922–1948 he served as its president. From 1918 until his retirement in 1937 he was the director of the Ondrejov Observatory, 40 km south of capital city of Prague, lectured astronomy at the Prague university and held many popular lectures including regular courses in radio broadcasting. František Nušl was member of several commisions of international scientific unions; he organized the 3rd General Assembly of IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) in Prague 1927, and in IAU (International Astronomical Union) he was elected as Vice-President in the years 1928–1935. One can conclude that he was the main person who formed the Czech astronomy in the interwar period.
A century of existence: it may seem short on the time-scale of the evolution of the universe, but very consequential to that of a scientific association. The fact that the IAU may be able to celebrate such a milestone is in itself a meritorious collective achievement, for it was not obvious at the very beginning that this organization was going to last more than a decade. Drawing on the historical sociology of scientific institutions, my paper will discuss the moral economy through which the IAU – and its dated but persistent form of scientific internationalism – has stabilized and maintained its identity since its creation in 1919, under the unifying auspices of a global scientific object to be known as: Under One Sky.
Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.
We examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 590 European-descent individuals from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between schizophrenia PRS and four anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder), schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder, manic/hypomanic episode, alcohol dependence, major depression, and – using linear regression – total number of anxiety disorders. A novel population-level association with hypomania was tested in a UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).
Schizophrenia PRS was associated with total number of anxiety disorders and with generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We show a novel population-level association between schizophrenia PRS and manic/hypomanic episode.
The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.