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This research textbook, designed for young Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers beginning their careers, surveys the research models and methods in use today and offers a general framework to bring together the disparate concepts. HCI spans many disciplines and professions, including information science, applied psychology, computer science, informatics, software engineering and social science making it difficult for newcomers to get a good overview of the field and the available approaches. The book's rigorous 'approach-and-framework' response is to the challenge of retaining growth and diversification in HCI research by building up a general framework from approaches for Innovation, Art, Craft, Applied, Science and Engineering. This general framework is compared with other HCI frameworks and theories for completeness and coherence, all within a historical perspective of dissemination success. Readers can use this as a model to design and assess their own research frameworks and theories against those reported in the literature.
Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer, resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state (CCPS) in the macroscopically normal rectal mucosa of healthy individuals. We also investigated relationships between expression of regulators of apoptosis and of the cell cycle on markers of CCPS. Seventy-five healthy participants were supplemented with RS and/or PD or placebo for 50 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Dietary Intervention, Stem cells and Colorectal Cancer (DISC) Study). CCPS was assessed, and the expression of regulators of the cell cycle and of apoptosis was measured by quantitative PCR in rectal mucosal biopsies. SCFA concentrations were quantified in faecal samples collected pre- and post-intervention. Supplementation with RS increased the total number of mitotic cells within the crypt by 60 % (P = 0·001) compared with placebo. This effect was limited to older participants (aged ≥50 years). No other differences were observed for the treatments with PD or RS as compared with their respective controls. PD did not influence any of the measured variables. RS, however, increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the macroscopically-normal rectum of older adults. Our findings suggest that the effects of RS on CCPS are not only dose, type of RS and health status-specific but are also influenced by age.
According to the United States Eye Injury Registry, eye injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness, and there are approximately 2.4 million eye injuries occurring annually in the US, resulting in 500,000 years of lost eyesight annually.1 These injuries occur more often in males (>70%), and 95% of occupational injuries occur in males.2,3 This chapter will describe the approach to the patient with eye trauma in the emergency department (ED), including how to perform a detailed history and physical examination related to eye injuries, as well as covering the traumatic presentations in Table 9.1.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: 1. Identify the extent of CD implementation for trained childcare teachers. 2. Explore teacher perspectives on the impact of CD. 3. Explore teacher perspectives on barriers and facilitators to full implementation of CD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a survey with 267 childcare teachers who had been trained in CD across the state, representing early childhood educational environments in urban and rural settings. Specific questions were asked related to level of CD implementation, perceived benefit, and facilitators/barriers to full implementation. A random subset of the sample (8 teachers) participated in a subsequent focus group to explore survey themes in greater depth. Focus group members were asked about their rationale for attending CD training, CD implementation (including barriers/facilitators to full implementation), and perceived impact on their classrooms. The focus group was recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Objective 1: 1. 30% of teachers reported full implementation of CD. 2. 50% of teachers reported partial implementation of CD. Objective 2: 1. The vast majority of teachers (95%) agreed that CD had a positive impact on their classroom, including better structure and enhanced relationships with the children. 2. The vast majority of teachers (85%) agreed that CD had a positive impact on the children in their classroom, including increases in problem-solving abilities and self-control. Objective 3: 1. Most teachers (71%) reported experiencing barriers to CD implementation, with the majority of those surveyed (93%) stating that additional implementation support would be helpful. 2. The top three barriers to implementation elicited in survey and focus groups included uncertainty regarding how to begin implementing CD in the classroom, lacking materials for CD implementation, and lacking time to focus on applying knowledge from training into the classroom. 3. The top three facilitators for implementation elicited in survey and focus groups included coaching support for teachers, training agency leadership in CD, and greater perceived impact of CD. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Childhood disruptive behaviors are among the most frequent reasons for referral to specialized services in and out of the classroom (Sukhodolsky, Smith, McCauley, Ibrahim, & Piasecka, 2016). Disruptive and aggressive behaviors are problematic, not only for victims of children who are aggressive but also for aggressive children as they age. Although effective treatments exist, the level of effective implementation of these interventions are understudied. These results demonstrate that 2/3 of teachers trained in CD are not fully implementing the model and provides concrete barriers and facilitators to current implementation. These data will provide the initial foundation for the development of a targeted implementation strategy that supports full implementation of CD within early childhood education settings.
The discovery of reproductive structures and embryos in basal jawed vertebrates, in addition to nursery sites, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diversity of reproductive strategies present in early gnathostomes. The presence of both dermal and perichondral components to the pelvic girdle in placoderms, in addition to complex musculature, absent in extant gnathostomes, indicates that the pectoral and pelvic girdles are not as morphologically distinct as previously thought. This suggests that arguments against homology, based on dissimilar skeletal and muscular morphology need to be revised. Evidence that oviparity preceded viviparity is present in the fossil record of placoderms (antiarchs versus ptyctodonts and arthrodires), coelacanths and teleosts. The identification of intromittent structures in placoderms, separate from the pelvic skeleton, suggests that the intromittent organs of placoderms and sharks are not homologous, nor are the gonopodia, modifications of the male anal fin in actinopterygians. These diverse reproductive structures reveal that internal fertilisation and live birth evolved independently and multiple times within the jawed vertebrates.
Fishes, here defined as ‘non-digitate aquatic vertebrates’, first appear in the Cambrian Period at least 520 million years ago (Ma). They are first represented by fusiform taxa lacking well-developed fins and dermal bone covering. The first fishes to bear external dermal bones forming a protective and supporting framework appear in the mid-Ordovician, about 460 Ma, represented by fusiform heterostracans and other associated taxa, found in Australia and South America. By the late Ordovician, fishes were widespread across the globe and the first jawed vertebrates, gnathostomes, had possibly appeared. The oldest gnathostome remains are enigmatic small placoid-like scales with chondrichthyan affinity, but cannot be resolved without more complete material. The oldest jawed vertebrates, both placoderms and stem chondrichthyans (‘acanthodians’), come from what is today China, with articulated diverse remains of placoderms and the first osteichthyans in the upper Silurian (Ludlow) of Yunnan. These forms include maxillate placoderms like Entelognathus and Qilinyu as well as heavily spined sarcopterygian (osteichthyan) fishes like Guiyu. At the start of the Early Devonian we see a new placoderm fish fauna emerging globally which has little resemblance to the late Silurian taxa of China, with some five main clades of placoderms and a few smaller groups of uncertain affinity. Osteichthyans diversified into two major clades, one of which, the Actinopterygii, or ray-fins, were represented by early forms with rhombic scales and fixed cheek-mouth complexes, loosely termed ‘paleoniscoids’. The Sarcopterygii, which include Actinistia (coelacanths), Dipnomorpha (dipnoans and porolepiforms), Onychodontiformes, and stem tetrapods (Tetrapodomorpha), had all appeared by the end of the early Devonian. Since the end of the Palaeozoic the non-tetrapod sarcopterygians are represented only by lungfishes and coelacanths. Chondrichthyans are known from isolated teeth, scales, and spines in the early Devonian with one articulated fish from the Emsian. By the late Devonian chondrichthyans had radiated into many families, including the first stem holocephalans, like Cladoselache. The Carboniferous saw a huge radiation of chondrichthyans and actinopterygians. Neopterygians appeared by the late Carboniferous with the first teleosteans by the late Triassic. Since the Mesozoic percomorphans especially have diversified to comprise the great majority of all fish families extant today, represented by some 29,000 spp. of teleosteans. Chondrichthyans also underwent a secondary radiation when batoids and modern sharks appeared in the Jurassic. Today there are some 1,200 species of living chondrichthyans.
Bowel cancer risk is strongly influenced by lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Several studies have investigated the effects of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) cancer prevention recommendations on outcomes such as all-cause and cancer-specific mortality, but the relationships with molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects on bowel cancer risk are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and wingless/integrated (WNT)-pathway-related markers of bowel cancer risk, including the expression of WNT pathway genes and regulatory microRNA (miRNA), secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) methylation and colonic crypt proliferative state in colorectal mucosal biopsies. Dietary and lifestyle data from seventy-five healthy participants recruited as part of the DISC Study were used. A scoring system was devised including seven of the cancer prevention recommendations and smoking status. The effects of total adherence score and scores for individual recommendations on the measured outcomes were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and unpaired t tests, respectively. Total adherence score correlated negatively with expression of Myc proto-oncogene (c-MYC) (P=0·039) and WNT11 (P=0·025), and high adherers had significantly reduced expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) (P=0·042), WNT11 (P=0·012) and c-MYC (P=0·048). Expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β), catenin β1 (CTNNB1) and WNT11 and of the oncogenic miRNA miR-17 and colonic crypt kinetics correlated significantly with scores for individual recommendations, including body fatness, red meat intake, plant food intake and smoking status. The findings from this study provide evidence for positive effects of adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations on WNT-pathway-related markers of bowel cancer risk.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) Identify current barriers to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (2) Identify current facilitators to coordinated care between behavior consultation and PCIT services. (3) Utilize this knowledge to create and pilot a coordinated care model that will enhance PCIT and behavior consultation service outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Objectives 1 and 2: Two focus groups consisting of 8–10 behavior consultants will be conducted to gather initial information on barriers and facilitators to coordinated care. Participants will be recruited from the state-funded behavior consultation team, to represent consultation occurring in rural and urban settings. All focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. Focus groups will be provided with an initial 10-minute overview of PCIT, including theory, prescribed strategies, and mode of intervention. A grand tour question will then be asked to elicit consultant perceptions of PCIT (e.g., “What are your thoughts on the compatibility between PCIT and behavior consultation services”), followed by probe questions deigned to elicit more detailed information about any perceived differences based on philosophical approach; differences in what is recommended in childcare settings Versus at home, etc.; and perceived barriers to coordinated care between school and outpatient services (e.g., “What factors make coordinating care with outpatient providers challenging?). Participants will be asked about their willingness to participate in a second focus group to review materials created to enhance coordinated care, based on their feedback. Objective 3. Based on feedback from the focus groups and quantitative data regarding factors associated with PCIT outcomes, we will develop an enhanced childcare component(s) for eventual implementation. To confirm our approach, we will invite the members of both focus groups back for a second session, in which we provide them with the created materials and elicit their feedback. We will start with a grand tour question (e.g., “How do you think parents and teachers would react to these materials?”) and then follow-up with probe questions related to feasibility (e.g., “How do you anticipate using these tools?”), appropriateness (e.g., “How adequately do you feel these materials address concerns with coordinated care?”), and acceptability (e.g., “How likely are you to begin using these tools within your consultation?”). Both focus groups will be recorded and transcribed to capture questions and comments. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Barriers and facilitators to coordinated care will include individual (e.g., acceptability of PCIT framework) and system-level factors (e.g., ease of communication between providers). (2) There will be significant overlap in coordination between the first phase of PCIT (which focuses on positive parenting strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (3) There will be less compatibility between the second phase of PCIT (which focuses on disciplinary strategies) and what is prescribed by behavior consultants. (4) A coordinated are model will be rated as more feasible, appropriate, and acceptable to behavior consultants than PCIT services as currently prescribed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Childhood disruptive behaviors are among the most frequent reasons for referral to outpatient child/adolescent mental health clinics (Sukhodolsky et al., 2016). Disruptive and aggressive behaviors are problematic, not only for victims of children who are aggressive but also for aggressive children as they age. Although effective treatments exist, families are often provided with conflicting strategies for behavior management by outpatient clinicians and behavior consultants in the daycare setting, thus providing children inconsistent feedback which will delay their attainment of new skills. These data will provide the initial foundation for the development of a coordinated care model that promotes treatment efficacy by improving the compatibility between clinic-based PCIT and daycare-based behavior consultation services.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this work is to determine the mechanistic consequences of BRCA1 mutants in inter-strand crosslink (ICL) repair. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Our lab uses Xenopus egg extracts to study ICL repair. These extracts can be depleted of endogenous BRCA1 by immunoprecipitation. The goal of this work is to rescue endogenous depletion with in vitro translated, wild type BRCA1. Once achieved, we can supplement the depleted extract with BRCA1 mutants to access their function in ICL repair. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that the BRCT and RING domain mutations will abrogate ICL repair, while mutations in the coiled coil region will not affect repair. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings will have an immense impact on the understanding of BRCA1 domains. Importantly these results will spur personalized therapy of BRCA1 mutants by showing which domains are sensitive to cross-linking agents.
The earliest tetrapodomorph fishes appear in Chinese deposits of Early Devonian age, and by the Middle Devonian they were widespread globally. Evidence for the earliest digitated tetrapods comes from largely uncontested Middle Devonian trackways and Late Devonian body fossils. The East Gondwana Provence (Australasia, Antarctica) fills vital gaps in the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of the tetrapods, with the Gondwanan clade Canowindididae exhibiting a high degree of endemism within the early part of the stem tetrapod radiation. New anatomical details of Koharalepis, from the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Antarctica, are elucidated from synchrotron scan data. These include the position of the orbit, the condition of the hyomandibular, the shape of the palate and arrangement of the vomerine fangs. Biogeographical and phylogenetic models of stem tetrapod origins and radiations are discussed.
We deposited TaWSi amorphous metal thin films to determine how composition affects film crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures. Films were deposited by magnetron sputtering from targets of nominal compositions Ta : W : Si = 40 : 40 : 20, 30 : 50 : 20, and 30 : 30 : 40, and studied by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electrical methods, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. All films remained amorphous to 800 °C or higher temperatures. Films prepared from the target composition 30 : 30 : 40 yielded the film composition Ta41.7W38.4Si19.9, which retained its film integrity and amorphous structure to 1100 °C, even after annealing in air.
This study focused on an instructional component often neglected when teaching the pronunciation of English as either a second, foreign, or international language—namely, the suprasegmental feature of lexical stress. Extending previous research on collaborative priming tasks and task repetition, the study investigated the impact of task and procedural repetition on eliciting target-stress patterns during collaborative priming tasks. It employed a pretest-posttest design with 57 Korean high school students who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control, priming with task repetition, and priming with procedural repetition. Learners participated in a pretest, two priming sessions, and two posttests over a 4-week period. Learners’ ability to produce target-stress patterns was measured through sentence read-aloud tasks. The task repetition group repeated the same primes and prompts twice, whereas the procedural repetition group performed priming tasks with different primes and prompts during two sessions. Results indicate that the amount of primed production was significantly more than unprimed production. Additionally, both experimental conditions promoted learners’ accurate production of target-stress patterns, though, in relation to long-term impacts, repeating the same task (i.e., same procedure and same content) twice was more effective than repeating the procedure for a second time with different content. The results are discussed in light of pronunciation teaching using auditory priming tasks.
Significant new material of Late Devonian Gogo Formation fish fossils is still surfacing. Collecting in the past decade has uncovered the first Gogo shark fossils (Gogoselachus plus another new undescribed taxon), the first acanthodian (Halmacanthodes ahlbergi), the first coelacanth, as well as the first placoderm embryos. Recent studies have elucidated the nature of placoderm claspers, pelvic girdles, synarcuals and embryos, the structure of their teeth, a description of well-preserved muscles in placoderms, and how muscles attach to bones. Molecular biomarkers have also been identified in Gogo fossils. There are now five basal ray-fin fishes in the fauna, including one undescribed new taxon. The lungfish fauna from Gogo is the most diverse known for any Devonian site, with 10 genera and 12 species. The dermal skeleton and endocast of the dipterid Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis have been described in detail from CT scans; and the ontogenetic stages of neurocranium formation in Griphognathus. New specimens of the tetrapodomorph fish Gogonasus andrewsae have shed further light on its endocranium, pectoral girdle and fin. Through their exceptional preservation of both hard and varied kinds of soft tissues, the Gogo fishes remain crucial for resolving key debates on the diversification, physiology, biomechanics and phylogenetic relationships of early gnathostomes.
Clive Long, Associate Director of Psychology and Psychological Therapies, St Andrew's Healthcare, and Professor in Clinical Psychology, University of Northampton,
John Shine, Consultant Psychologist, St Andrew's Healthcare
Psychological treatments in secure mental health settings comprise a wide range of interventions that are delivered at the individual, group and ward milieu level. Different forms of structured psychological treatments have evolved in these settings to offer remediation of mental health problems and symptoms and to reduce risk. The past 20 years have witnessed a significant expansion of psychological therapies facilitated by governmentdriven initiatives to improve access to talking therapies. Over the same time period there has been an expansion in the provision of psychological, educational and behavioural intervention programmes for offenders, including those detained in secure psychiatric settings, based on the ‘what works’ in reducing reoffending literature (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Lösel, 1996; Hollin, 1999). In the UK, much progress in secure services has been driven by the National Health Service's (NHS's) Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme (www.iapt.nhs.uk). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for specific disorders have highlighted the evidence base for psychological therapies and the development of minimum standards for patients in secure services has been paralleled by an increased focus on high-quality in-patient care (Doyle et al, 2012). This has had an impact on the model of service delivery for psychological treatments. Accordingly, psychologists have been less involved in directly providing interventions and more involved in treatment development, training and consultative capacities, for example in the development of manualised treatments that aim to improve treatment integrity and facilitate treatment delivery by (trained) non-psychology staff (Hollin, 2006). Psychological therapies are therefore currently provided by clinical and forensic psychologists, and also by psychiatrists, specially trained mental health nurses, occupational therapists, psychotherapists and art and drama therapists.
This chapter is intended as a general guide to evidence-based psychological interventions for patients in secure psychiatric settings. It draws on evidence from a growing international literature on the effectiveness of interventions in criminal justice settings, with specific examples of programmes that operate in the UK, such as Controlling Anger and Learning how to Manage it (CALM; Ministry of Justice, 2010a). These programmes, whose primary goal is reduction of recidivism, are not routinely transferable into forensic mental health settings, where the emphasis is on reducing the risk posed by factors such as mental illness and substance misuse in addition to index offence-based work (Long et al, 2008).
Data from multiple ice and sediment cores in the North Atlantic show that Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) was characterized by recurring millennial-scale variations in climate, but the periodic behavior of the well-known millennial-scale variations, Heinrich events and Dansgaard–Oeschger events, is uncertain. We use oxygen isotope values from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) and North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice cores and estimated sea-surface temperature derived from a Bermuda Rise marine sediment core as climate proxies to assess the periodic behavior of Heinrich events and Dansgaard–Oeschger events using Lomb–Scargle spectral decomposition and continuous time autoregressive models. We find that continuous time autoregressive models produce less variable estimates of periodicity for Heinrich events than Lomb–Scargle methods. Heinrich events during MIS 3 are periodic with an estimated periodicity of 6.29–6.49 ka in the GISP 2 ice core, 6.71–6.76 ka in the marine sediment core, and 7.89–8.23 ka in the NGRIP core. There is insufficient evidence from these data to conclude that Dansgaard–Oeschger events exhibit a single periodicity during MIS 3. We also find that the periodic behavior of millennial-scale variations depends on the observational time frame.
At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R) and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the 2009, and 2011 winter seasons and part-way through the 2010 season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter-time dataset (2009) returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.
HRCAM (High Resolution CAMera) is a Canon 50D 15-megapixel digital SLR camera equipped with a Sigma 4.5 mm f/2.8 fish-eye lens. It was installed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau in January 2010 and photographs the sky every 15 minutes. Primarily functioning as a site-testing instrument, data obtained from HRCAM provide valuable statistics on cloud cover, sky transparency and the distribution and frequency of auroral activity. We present a first look at data from HRCAM during 2010, including an overview of how we intend to reduce the images. We also demonstrate the potential of stellar photometry by using linear combinations of the in-built Canon RGB filters to convert instrumental magnitudes into the photometric BVR bands.